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Tuyển tập các bài TOEFL Reading từ các kì thi và các bài luyện tập trước đó Content PRACTICE TEST 01 3 PRACTICE TEST 02 11 PRACTICE TEST 03 18 PRACTICE TEST 04 26 PRACTICE TEST 05 34 PRACTICE TEST 06 42 PRACTICE TEST 07 49 PRACTICE TEST 08 56 PRACTICE TEST 09 63 PRACTICE TEST 10 70 PRACTICE TEST 11 77 PRACTICE TEST 12 85 PRACTICE TEST 13 93 PRACTICE TEST 14 100 ANSWER KEY 107 PRACTICE TEST 01 May 2004 Question 1-10 All mammals feed their young. Beluga whale mothers, for example, nurse their calves for some twenty months, until they are about to give birth again and their young are able to find their own food. The behavior of feeding of the young is built into the reproductive Line system. It is a nonelective part of parental care and the defining feature of a mammal, the (5) most important thing that mammals whether marsupials, platypuses, spiny anteaters, or placental mammals have in common. But not all animal parents, even those that tend their offspring to the point of hatching or birth, feed their young. Most egg-guarding fish do not, for the simple reason that their young are so much smaller than the parents and eat food that is also much smaller than (10) the food eaten by adults. In reptiles, the crocodile mother protects her young after they have hatched and takes them down to the water, where they will find food, but she does not actually feed them. Few insects feed their young after hatching, but some make other arrangement, provisioning their cells and nests with caterpillars and spiders that they have paralyzed with their venom and stored in a state of suspended animation so that their (15) larvae might have a supply of fresh food when they hatch. For animals other than mammals, then, feeding is not intrinsic to parental care. Animals add it to their reproductive strategies to give them an edge in their lifelong quest for descendants. The most vulnerable moment in any animal’s life is when it first finds itself completely on its own, when it must forage and fend for itself. Feeding postpones that (20) moment until a young animal has grown to such a size that it is better able to cope. Young that are fed by their parents become nutritionally independent at a much greater fraction of their full adult size. And in the meantime those young are shielded against the vagaries of fluctuating of difficult-to-find supplies. Once a species does take the step of feeding its young, the young become totally dependent on the extra effort. If both parents are (25) removed, the young generally do no survive. 1. What does the passage mainly discuss? (A) The care that various animals give to their offspring. (B) The difficulties young animals face in obtaining food. (C) The methods that mammals use to nurse their young. (D) The importance among young mammals of becoming independent. 2. The author lists various animals in line 5 to (A) contrast the feeding habits of different types of mammals (B) describe the process by which mammals came to be defined (C) emphasize the point that every type of mammal feeds its own young (D) explain why a particular feature of mammals is nonelective 3. The word “tend” in line 7 is closest in meaning to (A) sit on (B) move (C) notice (D) care for 4. What can be inferred from the passage about the practice of animal parents feeding their young? (A) It is unknown among fish. (B) It is unrelated to the size of the young. (C) It is dangerous for the parents. (D) It is most common among mammals. 5. The word “provisioning” in line 13 is closest in meaning to (A) supplying (B) preparing (C) building (D) expanding 3 PRACTICE TEST 06 – May 2002 6. According to the passage, how do some insects make sure their young have food? (A) By storing food near their young. (B) By locating their nests or cells near spiders and caterpillars. (C) By searching for food some distance from their nest. (D) By gathering food from a nearby water source. 7. The word “edge” in line 17 is closest in meaning to (A) opportunity (B) advantage (C) purpose (D) rest 8. The word “it” in line 20 refers to (A) feeding (B) moment (C) young animal (D) size 9. According to the passage, animal young are most defenseless when (A) their parents are away searching for food (B) their parents have many young to feed (C) they are only a few days old (D) they first become independent 10. The word “shielded” in line 22 is closest in meaning to (A) raised (B) protected (C) hatched (D) valued Question 11-21 Printmaking is the generic term for a number of processes, of which woodcut and engraving are two prime examples. Prints are made by pressing a sheet of paper (or other material) against an image-bearing surface to which ink has been applied. When the paper is removed, the image adheres to it, but in reverse. Line (5) The woodcut had been used in China from the fifth century A.D. for applying patterns to textiles. The process was not introduced into Europe until the fourteenth century, first for textile decoration and then for printing on paper. Woodcuts are created by a relief process; first, the artist takes a block of wood, which has been sawed parallel to the grain, covers it with a white ground, and then draws the image in ink. The background is carved away, (10) leaving the design area slightly raised. The woodblock is inked, and the ink adheres to the raised image. It is then transferred to damp paper either by hand or with a printing press. Engraving, which grew out of the goldsmith’s art, originated in Germany and northern Italy in the middle of the fifteenth century. It is an intaglio process (from Italian intagliare, “to carve”). The image is incised into a highly polished metal plate, usually copper, with a (15) cutting instrument, or burin. The artist inks the plate and wipes it clean so that some ink remains in the incised grooves. An impression is made on damp paper in a printing press, with sufficient pressure being applied so that the paper picks up the ink. Both woodcut and engraving have distinctive characteristics. Engraving lends itself to subtle modeling and shading through the use of fine lines. Hatching and cross-hatching (20) determine the degree of light and shade in a print. Woodcuts tend to be more linear, with sharper contrasts between light and dark. Printmaking is well suited to the production of multiple images. A set of multiples is called an edition. Both methods can yield several hundred good-quality prints before the original block or plate begins to show signs of wear. Mass production of prints in the sixteenth century made images available, at a lower cost, (25) to a much broader public than before. 11. What does the passage mainly discuss? (A) The origins of textile decoration (B) The characteristics of good-quality prints 4 TOEFL Reading Comprehension (C) Two types of printmaking (D) Types of paper used in printmaking 12. The word “prime” in line 2 is closest in meaning to (A) principal (B) complex (C) general (D) recent 13. The author’s purposes in paragraph 2 is to describe (A) the woodcuts found in China in the fifth century (B) the use of woodcuts in the textile industry (C) the process involved in creating a woodcut (D) the introduction of woodcuts to Europe 14. The word “incised” in line 14 is closest in meaning to (A) burned (B) cut (C) framed (D) baked 15. Which of the following terms is defined in the passage/ (A) “patterns” (line 5) (B) “grain” (line 8) (C) “burin” (line 15) (D) “grooves” (line 16) 16. The word “distinctive” in line 18 is closest in meaning to (A) unique (B) accurate (C) irregular (D) similar 17. According to the passage, all of the following are true about engraving EXCEPT that it (A) developed from the art of the goldsmiths (B) requires that the paper be cut with a burin (C) originated in the fifteenth century (D) involves carving into a metal plate 18. The word “yield” in line 22 is closest in meaning to (A) imitate (B) produce (C) revise (D) contrast 19. According to the passage, what do woodcut and engraving have in common? (A) Their designs are slightly raised. (B) They achieve contrast through hatching and cross-hatching. (C) They were first used in Europe. (D) They allow multiple copies to be produced from one original. 20. According to the author, what made it possible for members of the general public to own prints in the sixteenth century? (A) Prints could be made at low cost. (B) The quality of paper and ink had improved. (C) Many people became involved in the printmaking industry. (D) Decreased demand for prints kept prices affordable. 21. According to the passage, all of the following are true about prints EXCEPT that they (A) can be reproduced on materials other than paper (B) are created from a reversed image (C) show variations between light and dark shades (D) require a printing press Questions 22-31 The first peoples to inhabit what today is the southeastern United States sustained themselves as hunters and gathers. Sometimes early in the first millennium A.D., however, 5 PRACTICE TEST 06 – May 2002 they began to cultivate corn and other crops. Gradually, as they became more skilled at Line gardening, they settled into permanent villages and developed a rich culture, characterized (5) by the great earthen mounds they erected as monuments to their gods and as tombs for their distinguished dead. Most of these early mound builders were part of the Adena-Hopewell culture, which had its beginnings near the Ohio River and takes its name from sites in Ohio. The culture spread southward into the present-day states of Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. Its peoples became great traders, bartering jewellery, (10) pottery, animal pelts, tools, and other goods along extensive trading networks that stretched up and down eastern North America and as far west as the Rocky Mountains. About A.D. 400, the Hopewell culture fell into decay. Over the next centuries, it was supplanted by another culture, the Mississippian, named after the river along which many of its earliest villages were located. This complex civilization dominated the Southeast from (15) about A.D. 700 until shortly before the Europeans began arriving in the sixteenth century. At the peak of its strength, about the year 1200, it was the most advanced culture in North America. Like their Hopewell predecessors, the Mississippians became highly skilled at growing food, although on a grander scale. They developed an improved strain of corn, which could survive in wet soil and a relatively cool climate, and also learned to cultivate (20) beans. Indeed, agriculture became so important to the Mississippians that it became closely associated with the Sun – the guarantor of good crops. Many tribes called themselves “children of the Sun” and believed their omnipotent priest-chiefs were descendants of the great sun god. Although most Mississippians lived in small villages, many others inhabited large towns. (25) Most of these towns boasted at least one major flat-topped mound on which stood a temple that contained a sacred flame. Only priests and those charged with guarding the flame could enter the temples. The mounds also served as ceremonial and trading sites, and at times they were used as burial grounds. 22. What does the passage mainly discuss? (A) The development of agriculture (B) The locations of towns and villages (C) The early people and cultures of the United States (D) The construction of burial mounds 23. Which of the following resulted from the rise of agriculture in the southeastern United States? (A) The development of trade in North America (B) The establishment of permanent settlements (C) Conflicts with other Native American groups over land (D) A migration of these peoples to the Rocky Mountains. 24. What does the term “Adena-Hopewell” (line 7) designate? (A) The early locations of the Adena-Hopewell culture (B) The two most important nations of the Adena-Hopewell culture (C) Two former leaders who were honored with large burial mounds. (D) Two important trade routes in eastern North America 25. The word “bartering” in line 9 is closest in meaning to (A) producing (B) exchanging (C) transporting (D) loading 26. The word “supplanted” in line 13 is closest in meaning to (A) conquered (B) preceded (C) replaced (D) imitated 27. According to the passage, when did the Mississippian culture reach its highest point of development? (A) About A.D. 400 (B) Between A.D. 400 and A.D. 700 6 TOEFL Reading Comprehension (C) About A.D. 1200 (D) In the sixteenth century 28. According to the passage, how did the agriculture of the Mississippians differ from that of their Hopewell predecessors? (A) The Mississippians produced more durable and larger crops of food. (B) The Mississippians sold their food to other groups. (C) The Mississippians could only grow plants in warm, dry climates. (D) The Mississippians produced special foods for their religious leaders. 29. Why does the author mention that many Mississippians tribes called themselves “children of the Sun” (line 22)? (A) To explain why they were obedient to their priest-chiefs. (B) To argue about the importance of religion in their culture. (C) To illustrate the great importance they placed on agriculture. (D) To provide an example of their religious rituals. 30. The phrase “charged with” in line 26 is closest in meaning to (A) passed on (B) experienced at (C) interested in (D) assigned to 31. According to the passage, the flat-topped mounds in Mississippian towns were used for all of the following purposes EXCEPT (A) religious ceremonies (B) meeting places for the entire community (C) sites for commerce (D) burial sites Question 32-40 Overland transport in the United States was still extremely primitive in 1790. Roads were few and short, usually extending from inland communities to the nearest river town or seaport. Nearly all interstate commerce was carried out by sailing ships that served the Line bays and harbors of the seaboard. Yet, in 1790 the nation was on the threshold of a new (5) era of road development. Unable to finance road construction, states turned for help to private companies, organized by merchants and land speculators who had a personal interest in improved communications with the interior. The pioneer in this move was the state of Pennsylvania, which chartered a company in 1792 to construct a turnpike, a road for the use of which a toll, or payment, is collected, from Philadelphia to Lancaster. The (10) legislature gave the company the authority to erect tollgates at points along the road where payment would be collected, though it carefully regulated the rates. (The states had unquestioned authority to regulate private business in this period.) The company built a gravel road within two years, and the success of the Lancaster Pike encouraged imitation. Northern states generally relied on private companies to build their (15) toll roads, but Virginia constructed a network at public expense. Such was the road building fever that by 1810 New York alone had some 1,500 miles of turnpikes extending from the Atlantic to Lake Erie. Transportation on these early turnpikes consisted of freight carrier wagons and passenger stagecoaches. The most common road freight carrier was the Conestoga wagon, a vehicle (20) developed in the mid-eighteenth century by German immigrants in the area around Lancaster, Pennsylvania. It featured large, broad wheels able to negotiate all but the deepest ruts and holes, and its round bottom prevented the freight from shifting on a hill. Covered with canvas and drawn by four to six horses, the Conestoga wagon rivaled the log cabin as the primary symbol of the frontier. Passengers traveled in a variety of (25) stagecoaches, the most common of which had four benches, each holding three persons. It was only a platform on wheels, with no springs; slender poles held up the top, and 7 PRACTICE TEST 06 – May 2002 leather curtains kept out dust and rain. 32. Paragraph 1 discusses early road building in the United States mainly in terms of the (A) popularity of turnpikes (B) financing of new roads (C) development of the interior (D) laws governing road use 33. The word “primitive” in line 1 is closest in meaning to (A) unsafe (B) unknown (C) inexpensive (D) undeveloped 34. In 1790 most roads connected towns in the interior of the country with (A) other inland communities (B) towns in other states (C) river towns or seaports (D) construction sites 35. The phrase “on the threshold of” in line 4 and 5 is closest in meaning to (A) in need of (B) in place of (C) at the start of (D) with the purpose of 36. According to the passage, why did states want private companies to help with road building? (A) The states could not afford to build roads themselves. (B) The states were not as well equipped as private companies. (C) Private companies could complete roads faster than the states. (D) Private companies had greater knowledge of the interior. 37. The word “it” in line 11 refers to (A) legislature (B) company (C) authority (D) payment 38. The word “imitation” in line 14 is closest in meaning to (A) investment (B) suggestion (C) increasing (D) copying 39. Virginia is mentioned as an example of a state that (A) built roads without tollgates (B) built roads with government money (C) completed 1,500 miles of turnpikes in one year (D) introduced new law restricting road use 40. The “large, broad wheels” of the Conestoga wagon are mentioned in line 21 as an example of a feature of wagons that was (A) unusual in mid-eighteenth century vehicles (B) first found in Germany (C) effective on roads with uneven surfaces (D) responsible for frequent damage to freight Question 41- 50 In Death Valley, California, one of the hottest, most arid places in North America, there is much salt, and salt can damage rocks impressively. Inhabitants of areas elsewhere, where streets and highways are salted to control ice, are familiar with the resulting rust and Line deterioration on cars. That attests to the chemically corrosive nature of salt, but it is not (5) the way salt destroys rocks. Salt breaks rocks apart principally by a process called crystal prying and wedging. This happens not by soaking the rocks in salt water, but by moistening 8 TOEFL Reading Comprehension their bottoms with salt water. Such conditions exist in many areas along the eastern edge of central Death Valley. There, salty water rises from the groundwater table by capillary action through tiny spaces in sediment until it reaches the surface. (10) Most stones have capillary passages that suck salt water from the wet ground. Death Valley provides an ultra-dry atmosphere and high daily temperatures, which promote evaporation and the formation of salt crystals along the cracks or other openings within stones. These crystals grow as long as salt water is available. Like tree roots breaking up a sidewalk, the growing crystals exert pressure on the rock and eventually pry the rock apart (15) along planes of weakness, such as banding in metamorphic rocks, bedding in sedimentary rocks, or preexisting or incipient fractions, and along boundaries between individual mineral crystals or grains. Besides crystal growth, the expansion of halite crystals (the same as everyday table salt) by heating and of sulfates and similar salts by hydration can contribute additional stresses. A rock durable enough to have withstood natural conditions (20) for a very long time in other areas could probably be shattered into small pieces by salt weathering within a few generations. The dominant salt in Death Valley is halite, or sodium chloride, but other salts, mostly carbonates and sulfates, also cause prying and wedging, as does ordinary ice. Weathering by a variety of salts, though often subtle, is a worldwide phenomenon. Not restricted to (25) arid regions, intense salt weathering occurs mostly in salt-rich places like the seashore, near the large saline lakes in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, and in desert sections of Australia, New Zealand, and central Asia. 41. What is the passage mainly about? (A) The destructive effects of salt on rocks. (B) The impressive salt rocks in Death Valley. (C) The amount of salt produced in Death Valley. (D) The damaging effects of salt on roads and highways. 42. The word “it” in line 9 refers to (A) salty water (B) groundwater table (C) capillary action (D) sediment 43. The word “exert” in line 14 is closest in meaning to (A) put (B) reduce (C) replace (D) control 44. In lines 13-17, why does the author compare tree roots with growing salt crystals? (A) They both force hard surfaces to crack. (B) They both grow as long as water is available. (C) They both react quickly to a rise in temperature. (D) They both cause salty water to rise from the groundwater table. 45. In lines 17-18, the author mentions the “expansion of halite crystals by heating and of sulfates and similar salts by hydration” in order to (A) present an alternative theory about crystal growth (B) explain how some rocks are not affected by salt (C) simplify the explanation of crystal prying and wedging (D) introduce additional means by which crystals destroy rocks 46. The word “durable” in line 19 is closest in meaning to (A) large (B) strong (C) flexible (D) pressured 47. The word “shattered” in line 20 is closest in meaning to 9 PRACTICE TEST 06 – May 2002 (A) arranged (B) dissolved (C) broken apart (D) gathered together 48. The word “dominant” in line 22 is closest in meaning to (A) most recent (B) most common (C) least available (D) least damaging 49. According to the passage, which of the following is true about the effects of salts on rocks? (A) Only two types of salts cause prying and wedging. (B) Salts usually cause damage only in combination with ice. (C) A variety of salts in all kinds of environments can cause weathering. (D) Salt damage at the seashore is more severe than salt damage in Death Valley. 50. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about rocks that are found in areas where ice is common? (A) They are protected from weathering. (B) They do not allow capillary action of water. (C) They show similar kinds of damage as rocks in Death Valley. (D) They contain more carbonates than sulfates. 10 PRACTICE TEST 02 January 2003 Questions 1-10 By far the most important United States export product in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was cotton, favored by the European textile industry over flax or wool because it was easy to process and soft to tile touch. Mechanization of spinning Line and weaving allowed significant centralization and expansion in the textile industry during (5) this period, and at the same time the demand for cotton increased dramatically. American producers were able to meet this demand largely because of tile invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793. Cotton could be grown throughout the South, but separating the fiber – or lint – from the seed was a laborious process. Sea island cotton was relatively easy to process by hand, because its fibers were long and seeds were concentrated at the (10) base of the flower, but it demanded a long growing season, available only along the nation’s eastern seacoast. Short-staple cotton required a much shorter growing season, but the shortness of the fibers and their mixture with seeds meant that a worker could hand-process only about one pound per day. Whitney’s gin was a hand-powered machine with revolving drums and metal teeth to pull cotton fibers away from seeds. Using the gin, (15) a worker could produce up to 50 pounds of lint a day. The later development of larger gins, powered by horses, water, or steam, multiplied productivity further. The interaction of improved processing and high demand led to the rapid spread of the cultivation of cotton and to a surge in production. It became the main American export, dwarfing all others. In 1802, cotton composed 14 percent of total American (20) exports by value. Cotton had a 36 percent share by 1810 and over a 50 percent share in 1830. In 1860, 61 percent of the value of American exports was represented by cotton. In contrast, wheat and wheat flour composed only 6 percent of the value of American exports in that year. Clearly, cotton was king in the trade of the young republic. The growing market for cotton and other American agricultural products led to an (25) unprecedented expansion of agricultural settlement, mostly in the eastern half of the United States west of the Appalachian Mountains and east of the Mississippi River. 1. The main point of the passage is that the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were a time when (A) the European textile industry increased its demand for American export products (B) mechanization of spinning and weaving dramatically changed the textile industry (C) cotton became a profitable crop but was still time-consuming to process (D) cotton became the most important American export product 2. The word “favored” in line 2 is closest in meaning to (A) preferred (B) recommended (C) imported (D) included 3. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as reasons for the increased demand for cotton EXCEPT (A) cotton’s softness (B) cotton’s ease of processing (C) a shortage of flax and wool (D) the growth that occurred in the textile industry. 4. The word “laborious” in line 8 is closest in meaning to (A) unfamiliar (B) primitive (C) skilled (D) difficult 5. According to the passage, one advantage of sea island cotton was its (A) abundance of seeds (B) long fibers (C) long growing season (D) adaptability to different climates 11 […]… long The carrying capacity of the eagles, however, is only relative to their size ant1 most birds are able to carry an extra load of just over twenty percent of their body weight 11 The word “obscure” in line 1 is closest in meaning to 12 (A) interesting (B) unclear (C) imperfect TOEFL Reading Comprehension (D) complex 12 According to the passage, which of the following activities is characteristic of… the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition of 19 09, the Parks Board bought aggressively By 19 13 Seattle had 25 parks amounting to 1, 400 acres, as well as 400 acres in playgrounds, pathways, boulevards, and triangles More lands would be added in the (25) future, but for all practical purposes it was the great land surge of 19 07 -19 13 that established Seattle’s park system 1 What does the passage mainly discuss?… They were looking for food 31 The phrase “are easily disposed” in line 11 is closet in meaning to (A) demonstrate reluctance (B) readily encourage others (C) have a tendency (D) often fail 30 TOEFL Reading Comprehension 32 The word “Ultimately” in line 14 is closest in meaning to (A) frequently (B) normally (C) whenever possible (D) in the end 33 The word “compelling” in line 17 is closest in meaning… were developed for very high notes 40 The word “standard” in line 12 is closest in meaning to (A) practical (B) customary (C) possible 41 “The King’s 24 Violins” is mentioned in line 15 to illustrate (A) how the violin became a renowned instrument (B) the competition in the 16 00’s between French and Italian orchestras 16 (D) unusual TOEFL Reading Comprehension (C) the superiority of French violins (D)… system? (A) 19 03 (B) 19 07 (C) 19 09 (D) 19 13 8 The word “sums” in line 20 is closest in meaning to (A) problems (B) amounts (C) services (D) debts 9 According to the passage, which of the following was most directly influenced by the Alaska-Yukon- Pacific Exposition? (A) The University of Washington (B) Brookline, Massachusetts (C) The mayor of Seattle (D) The Seattle Parks Board Questions 10 -19 No two… thought about (D) expanded on 16 Which of the following statements is supported by the information in paragraph 1? (A) All government policy makers accepted Jefferson’s views of agriculture and farmers (B) Agricultural production declined between 17 83 and 18 61 (C) The majority of farmers worked for the government (D) Agriculture was a vital part of the nation’s economy 17 According to the passage ,… closest in meaning to (A) explore (B) influence (C) analyze 30 Which of the following terms is defined in the passage? 14 (D) apply TOEFL Reading Comprehension (B) Public opinion (line 8) (D) Response rate (line 22) (A) Survey (line 1) (C) Representative sampling (line 13 ) Questions 31- 39 Perhaps one of the most dramatic and important changes that took place in the Mesozoic era occurred late in that… appear similar to (C) join together with (D) grow from 18 TOEFL Reading Comprehension 5 The purpose of the “guncotton” mentioned in paragraph 2 was to (A) trap particles for analysis (B) slow the process of putrefaction (C) increase the airflow to the microscopic slide (D) aid the mixing of alcohol and ether 6 The author mention 1. 0mm”in line 14 in describing the (A) thickness of a layer of organisms… supplement the major driveway, (15 ) which was to remain the unifying factor for the entire system In November of 19 03 the city council of Seattle adopted the Olmsted Report, and it automatically became the master plan for the city’s park system Prior to this report, Seattle’s park development was very limited and funding meager All this changed after the report Between 19 07 and 19 13, city voters approved… of the same family, the violins form the nucleus (10 ) of the modern symphony orchestra (15 ) (20) (25) The violin has been in existence since about 15 50 Its importance as an instrument in its own right dates from the early 16 00’s, when it first became standard in Italian opera orchestras Its stature as an orchestral instrument was raised further when in 16 26 Louis XIII of France established at his court

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