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Transactional analysis ego styles: a comparative study of employees of State bank of India and ICICI bank
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The study aims to find the predominant ego styles of employees in two of the country’s leading banks: ICICI and State Bank of India. It serves as a useful model for organizations to be aware of the psychological states of employees which influence the performance of employees.

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  1. International Journal of Management (IJM)
    Volume 9, Issue 3, May–June 2018, pp. 65–73, Article ID: IJM_09_03_007
    Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijm/issues.asp?JType=IJM&VType=9&IType=3
    Journal Impact Factor (2016): 8.1920 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com
    ISSN Print: 0976-6502 and ISSN Online: 0976-6510
    © IAEME Publication

    TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS EGO STYLES: A
    COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EMPLOYEES OF
    STATE BANK OF INDIA AND ICICI BANK
    Puneet Kaur
    Research Scholar, Assistant Professor,
    Post Graduate Department of Commerce,
    A.S College, Khanna

    ABSTRACT
    Individuals, irrespective of their biographical, academic and professional
    qualifications, exhibit themselves to the external world, from either one of the
    psychological states-parent, adult and child at a point of time. These psychological
    states manifest themselves in individuals from either an effective or ineffective mode.
    This may affect their interaction with others positively or negatively. This reflects in
    their performance in various domains of life, inclusive of the same in their work life as
    well. The study aims to find the predominant ego styles of employees in two of the
    country’s leading banks: ICICI and State Bank of India. It serves as a useful model for
    organizations to be aware of the psychological states of employees which influence the
    performance of employees. The study was conducted in the banking sector (a SBIand a
    ICICI Bank). The primary constituent of success in an organization is its human
    interface and it largely depends on their interactive ability with clients as well as among
    themselves. This has necessitated the researcher to analyze the predominantly
    manifested ego styles among employees. These ego styles influence the performance
    level of the individual employees to a large extent.
    Key words: Psychological, Work Life, Ego, Parent, Adult, Child.
    Cite this Article: Sukanya Sharma, Fedric Kujur, Saumya Singh and Gairik Das,
    Changing Pattern of Promotion In Indian Organised Retail – A Review, International
    Journal of Management, 9 (3), 2018, pp. 65–73.
    http://www.iaeme.com/ijm/issues.asp?JType=IJM&VType=9&IType=3

    1. INTRODUCTION
    Transaction Analysis (TA) is a theory of personality and behavior and a systematic tool for
    personal growth and personal change. TA gives a clear picture of how people are structured
    psychologically. People are structured into three basic ego states of-parent, adult and child. It
    is based on the state they are in which determines their day to day behavior (Harris,1979).These
    ego states are projected by individuals in either of the effective or ineffective forms, which
    henceforth influence their interactions with others. This further enhances or deteriorates their

    http://www.iaeme.com/IJM/index.asp 65 editor@iaeme.com

  2. Changing Pattern Of Promotion In Indian Organised Retail – A Review

    performance in their work place. This study has brought out the ineffective and effective styles
    of employees in the banking sector.
    At any given time, a person experiences and manifests their personality through a mixture
    of behaviors, thoughts and feelings. Typically, according to TA, there are three ego-states that
    people consistently use:
    • Adult: a state in which they behave, feel and think in response to what is going on here and
    now, using all their resources as an adult human being with many years of experience of life to
    guide them.
    • Parent: a state in which they behave, feel and think in response to an unconscious mimicking
    of how their parents (or other parent figures) acted – thus a person may shout at someone out of
    frustration because they learned from an influential figure in childhood the lesson that this
    seemed to be a way that worked.
    • Child: a state in which they revert to behaving, feeling and thinking close to how they did in
    childhood – thus a person being told off by the boss at work may look down and feel shame or
    anger, as they used to when told off as a child.

    2. PHILOSOPHY OF TA
    • People are OK – thus each person has validity, importance, equality of respect.
    • Everyone (with only few exceptions) has full adult capability to think.
    • People decide their story and destiny, and this is a decision, it can be changed.
    • Freedom from historical mal adaptations embedded in the childhood script is required, in order
    to become free of inappropriate unauthentic and displaced emotion which are not a fair and
    honest reflection of here-and-now life (such as echoes of childhood suffering, pity-me and other
    mind games, compulsive behaviour, and repetitive dysfunctional life patterns).
    • TA is goal oriented, not merely problem oriented.
    • The aims of change under TA are autonomy (freedom from childhood script), spontaneity,
    intimacy, problem solving as opposed to avoidance or passivity, cure as an ideal rather than
    merely ‘making progress’, learning new choices.

    3. UNDERSTANDING THE PARTS OF OUR PERSONALITY
    If we realized the many different parts of our personality, we should be better able to discover
    what we are really like inside–what “makes us tick.” Personality theories provide a kind of road
    map of the parts of our personality which generate the complex and conflicting feelings,
    thoughts, and behaviors we experience. Such theories fill entire books (e.g. Monte, 1980; Byrne
    & Kelley, 1981; Mischel, 1981). Freud’s parts of the personality–id, ego and superego–and
    Eric Berne’s (1964, 1973) parts–the “child,” “adult,” and “parent.” are similar and together they
    probably are still the most commonly used theories (Psychoanalysis and Transactional Analysis
    or TA) for understanding ourselves and others.

    1. The id or the “child”
    The id contains the primitive biological urges assumed (by Freud) to strive for expression in all
    of us. These drives include the needs to be loved and cuddled, the desires to have all kinds of
    sexual stimulation, and the tendencies to be aggressive and destructive in general and hostile in
    particular towards anything that interferes with our gaining the pleasures we seek. The id is not
    rational or realistic; it has no morals. It seeks immediate gratification. Some of its urges may
    be conscious, like wanting to look at your mother’s breasts; some are unconscious, perhaps
    homosexual urges or murderous impulses. The id’s motto is “If it feels good, do it.”
    Eric Berne’s “child” ego state is similar to Freud’s id (or “it” in German) except he divided
    this part of our personality into three sub-parts:

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  3. Sukanya Sharma, Fedric Kujur, Saumya Singh and Gairik Das

    1. The natural child is the fun-loving, carefree, impulsive, creative, pleasure-seeking, impatient
    part of us that provides much of our motivation, excitement, and energy. The natural child part
    also provides some of our important emotions, such as joy and curiosity when we are happy and
    anger and vengeance when we are frustrated. Without this part, life would not be nearly so much
    fun or as mean.
    2. The adaptive child is the compliant, orderly, neat part of us that encourages us to act “grown
    up,” attempts to please others, hides our anger and greed, and generally seeks the rewards of
    doing what we are supposed to do. It is the need to be a “good boy” or “good girl.” As we learned
    in chapter 8, however, the needs to be “good” and conform are often opposed by the needs to
    rebel; dependency is followed by resentment. Thus, the adaptive child also contains urges to
    subtly resist orders and tradition. It may procrastinate rather than openly rebel; it may get sick
    to get attention; it may devise a “script” (a life plan) to please a parent’s “child” which wants the
    son or daughter to fail or to be “bad;” it may play “games” to hurt itself or others; it may become
    neurotic or psychotic or just unhappy and grouchy if such an adaptation has a payoff.
    3. The Little Professor is the intuitive, clever, observant, conniving, manipulative part of us which
    figures out how to relate to others to get what we want. Examples: it may say, “if I’m nice to my
    brother and sister” or “if I’m cute and smile a lot” or “if I say ‘I love you’ frequently” or “if I
    throw a temper tantrum” then I’ll get what I want. The Little Professor may help us be good or
    it may be a trouble-maker.
    Your “child” is probably in control when you:
    • act on feelings and/or act impulsively and/or make an emotional decision.
    • use words such as won’t, can’t, hate, love, give me, now, damn, and so on.
    • get upset with other people or when something gets in your way.
    • look for and do whatever seems to be the most fun (rather than what you should do in terms of
    common sense or morals).
    • notice that people are playful and comfortable with you and enjoy being around you (at least at
    a party).
    These three sub-parts of the “child” are responsible for much of our personality and
    interaction with others. The key questions to ask are: Is my “child” happy or unhappy? Is it free
    and having fun (part of the time)? Is it suppressed and angry? Has it felt forced to adapt by
    being sickly (and complaining) or weak or disruptive or rebellious or deceptive? Later in this
    chapter we will study the “games people play;” these “games” are devised primarily by the
    unhappy adaptive “child” to get some pay off to replace the love and attention it can’t get by
    straight-forward interactions.

    2. The superego or the “parent”
    Early in life we start to realize that all of our pleasure, love, and sexual needs cannot be satisfied.
    Some desires may be impossible to fulfill; other urges are taboo; still other urges anger people
    who are important to our survival. Thus, a part of us starts to say, “You can’t do that” or “You
    shouldn’t think about those kinds of things; they are bad.” This internal voice becomes the
    superego or “parent” part of our personality. Freud gave detailed explanations of how the
    superego developed. For instance, in chapter 5 we have already learned how the scary Oedipus
    and Electra Complexes are resolved by identifying with the same sexed parent. For example,
    for girls: “If I ally myself with Mommy–become like her–then she will like me and not hate
    me.” Thus, the parent’s values, morals, and attitudes are absorbed as part of this identification
    process. Furthermore, parents, baby sitters, relatives, and older siblings have morally guided
    the young child by repeatedly encouraging good behavior and reprimanding bad behavior, so
    that the superego of the child takes over that controlling role.
    Freud recognized two aspects of the superego: the conscience and the ego-ideal. The
    conscience is learned through criticism and punishment by parents and others. The ego-ideal, a

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  4. Changing Pattern Of Promotion In Indian Organised Retail – A Review

    perfectionist ideal (often a glorified image of the same sexed parent) held up for the ego to
    strive for, is acquired by being rewarded for being good. Likewise, Berne divided Freud’s
    superego functions into two “parents:”
    1. The nurturing “parent” is the part of all of us that is caring, loving, helping, supportive,
    giving, and protective towards others and towards one’s self. This part of our personality may
    include giving ourselves and others practical hints about coping, bits of wisdom, values, wise
    sayings, and other suggestions about how to live. This part talks to us and says things like, “You
    are a good person when you help your parents” or “You don’t have to do what others want you
    to do, you have good judgment, make up your own mind.”
    2. The critical “parent” is the part of us which criticizes our own or others’ behavior (or feelings
    or thoughts) when we do something we shouldn’t. It is our conscience; it is filled with “shoulds”
    and “thou shall nots” and “oughts.” When we do something wrong, the critical parent can be
    very severe and harsh with us, causing shame, guilt, and depression. Freud believed that the
    stronger the id’s unacceptable love-sex needs and aggressive tendencies, the more critical the
    superego must become. Thus, there is a constant struggle between the id and the superego–
    between the “child” and the “parent.”
    Your “parent” is probably in control when you:
    • Obey rules or follow customs unquestioningly.
    • Use words such as awful, good, silly, cute, disgraceful, and disgusting, dirty and so on.
    • Do what others think you should rather than what you prefer to do.
    • Are bossy, give advice or instructions, and explain a lot of things to others.
    • Talk and act the way your mother or father did.
    • Stand over others, point your finger at them, and lecture.

    3. The ego or the “adult”
    Obviously, both the pleasure-seeking, destructive id and the cruel, demanding superego must
    be controlled, which is one of the assignments given the ego (Freud’s word was “I” in German)
    or the “adult.” The ego tries to find realistic ways to placate the passions of the id and still stay
    within the moral boundaries set by the superego. Moreover, the ego must learn to deal with the
    outside world–what others will tolerate and what demands are made on us for survival and for
    approval by others. The ego is the perceiving, thinking, reasoning, logically deciding part of
    us–our Mr. Spock or our computer which helps us decide what is rational to do. Neither the id
    nor superego is realistic. The id demands constant gratification; the superego is impossibly
    idealistic. The ego or “adult” has to deal with reality–and reality includes (1) the id’s emotional
    impulses, (2) the superego’s moralistic demands and censure, and (3) complex external reality,
    including understanding how things really work in the outside world and how to get along with
    others. As Freud said, “Life (for the ego) is not easy!” It has an enormous task and, as we saw
    in chapter 5, when our ego becomes overwhelmed, we feel anxious. The anxiety may come
    from the id (the urges are about to break loose), the superego (the criticism is devastating), or
    reality (things are falling apart in the external world).
    Not all of the work of the ego is conscious, i.e. it does many things without telling us. For
    instance, the ego represses some of the id’s desires because consciously thinking about these
    selfish or sexually perverse or brutally hostile urges makes us anxious (the urges are still there).
    The ego’s defense mechanisms, as discussed in chapter 5, operate unconsciously. In a similar
    way, our ego unconsciously devises a variety of excuses which enable us to escape the critical
    wrath of our superego (see chapters 3 & 7). The best solution is to acknowledge (as we become
    able to do so) all parts of us, the good and the bad. That’s why this road map to your psyche
    should be helpful for self-exploration.

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  5. Sukanya Sharma, Fedric Kujur, Saumya Singh and Gairik Das

    Your “adult” is probably in charge when you:
    • Gather information for making a rational decision.
    • Check out reality to see if certain beliefs are actually true.
    • Weigh the pros and cons for several courses of action, considering the long-term practical
    consequences, the moral values, and the pleasure involved.
    • Make decisions in a reasonable way and then assess the effectiveness of those decisions.

    4. KEEPING THE PARTS IN BALANCE
    Ask yourself, “Is my adult free to make rational decisions or is it so ‘contaminated’ with
    emotions from the child or false beliefs from the parent that it can’t think logically?” Examples:
    Feeling others are against us may come from a scared or frustrated “child.” The angry “child”
    may convince the “adult” that “no one likes me” or “they hate me” (a projection). Our “adult”
    must learn to recognize the “child’s” unconscious attempts to influence our thinking. Prejudices
    are false beliefs held by the “parent” part of the personality. If the “adult” doesn’t rationally
    check out these false beliefs, we may genuinely believe that all Jews are shrewd, untrustworthy
    businessmen, all blacks are lazy (except in sports), and all whites are materialistic chauvinists
    and prejudice. The “adult” must check reality to keep the “child” and the “parent” under control.
    Sometimes they overwhelm the “adult.”
    Also, ask yourself, “Are the three parts of my personality reasonably well balanced with the
    ‘adult’ in charge?” If not, there are problems:
    Underdeveloped Results Overdeveloped Results
    Poorly developed Overly critical of child and
    The parent: The parent:
    conscience adult
    All play, impulsive, angry
    The child: All work and no play The child:
    or sick
    Loss of contact with
    Overly serious,
    The adult: reality, impulsiveness, or The adult:
    intellectualizing
    even insanity
    For each of these deficiencies, the solution is for the “adult” to recognize the situation and
    strengthen the weak part, so there is a healthy balance. If the “parent,” for instance, is too strong,
    we feel beaten down and guilty. In this case, Harris and Harris (1985) suggest relaxation, enjoy
    the moment, tell yourself “it ain’t so bad,” go to a calming place, exercise, and do something
    fun. We need all three: a strong conscience, a playful, creative “child,” and an even stronger
    “adult” in charge.

    5. HOW TO USE THIS PERSONALITY THEORY?
    It is vital to “know thy self,” i.e. all parts of you. You can practice doing this by frequently
    asking yourself how each of your parts feel, realizing that each part has a different answer to
    almost any question. For example, suppose you were asked how you like going to school. You
    might ordinarily say, “It’s all right.” Actually, there are six (using TA theory) answers:
    • The natural child–“It’s boring, I hate it, I want to travel” or “Classes are dull but the parties and
    the men/women are great.”
    • The adaptive child–“It’s going fine, thank you” or “I have to work so hard. I never get to bed
    before midnight (feel sorry for me).”
    • The little professor–“I’m doing really well. One teacher told me I was the best student he had
    ever had. But I may have to drop out because my money is running out (so how about a donation
    or a loan?).”

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  6. Changing Pattern Of Promotion In Indian Organised Retail – A Review

    • The nurturing parent–“I realize that a good education is priceless and can never be taken away
    from you. I feel real good about doing well in school.”
    • The critical parent–“Well, I goof-off a lot and I’m not a good student anyway. I just can’t make
    myself work.”
    • The adult–“Some parts are enjoyable and some are not, but I need good grades to get an
    assistantship in a good graduate school, so I’m trying to do as well as I can.”

    6. RESEARCH DESIGN
    The study aims to find the predominant ego styles of employees in two of the country’s leading
    banks: ICICI and State Bank of India. It serves as a useful model for organizations to be aware
    of the psychological states of employees which influence the performance of employees.

    Objective of the Study
    • To find the influence of the Ego Styles among the employees in banking sector.
    • To compare the Ego styles of employees in State Bank of India with ICICI Bank employees.

    Research Methodology

    Source of Data
    Primary data was collected was for the study. Primary data is firsthand information collected
    through various methods like observation, interview, mailing etc. a questionnaire was
    developed and data was collected through a combination of electronic mail and interviewing.

    Sampling Plan
    • Type of sample – Convenience or Accidental Sampling was used. This sampling means
    selecting sampling unit which are conveniently available. This method is also called accidental
    sample because the respondents whom the researcher meets accidentally are included in the
    sample.
    • Size of sample – The study was conducted in the banking sector. One bank each in both public
    sector and private sector was covered. The total sample size was 60 i.e., 30 each in both banks.
    • Sampling area- The sampling area chosen for the study is Chandigarh. The employees working
    in the braches of SBI and ICICI Bank were contacted for data collection.

    Research Instrument
    Udai Pareek’s Transactional Styles Inventory (TSI)-Managers was administered to the bank
    employees. TSI-M has been created to help the respondents examine their transactional styles
    or interactional styles and develop strategies to enhance their interpersonal effectiveness. The
    scores obtained in the test can be used for training. A respondent can examine the operating
    effectiveness scores for each of his ego states; if he feels concerned about low scores; he can
    prepare a plan for behavior changes, based on the related items, by reducing NO OK behavior
    and increasing OK behavior.

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  7. Sukanya Sharma, Fedric Kujur, Saumya Singh and Gairik Das

    7. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
    SD
    Functions Mean* SD**
    ICICI Bank State Bank of India
    Nurturing 50 10 16.2 11.5
    Regulating 50 10 16.4 13.6
    Task 55 10 12.3 12.01
    Creative 65 10 15.8 10
    Reactive 60 10 11.01 13.2
    Adaptive 65 10 11 11.03
    * Mean as per the norm table
    ** SD as per the norm table

    Comparison of Mean Scores as per the norm table
    ICICI
    Functions Very low Low Avg. High Very High SBI
    Bank
    Nurturing Below 36 36-45 46-45 56-65 Above 65 54.8 54.6
    Regulating Below 36 36-45 46-55 56-65 Above 65 56.8 52.6
    Task Below 41 41-50 51-60 61-70 Above 70 56.8 51.7
    Creative Below 51 51-60 61-70 71-80 Above 80 63.4 52.8
    Reactive Below 46 46-55 56-65 66-75 Above 75 61.9 55.01
    Adaptive Below 51 51-60 61-70 71-80 Above 80 66.9 61.06
    • The nurturing style score is on the higher side for ICICI bank as well as SBI.
    • The regulating style score is high for ICICI Bank and average for SBI.
    • Though ICICI Bank has higher Mean scores on task orientation function, both sectors fall in the
    average range.
    • On creativity function, the ICICI Bank has average mean scores but the SBI has low mean
    scores.
    • On the reactive function, the ICICI Bank has high mean scores but the SBI has low scores.
    • On the adaptive function, both the banks have average mean scores.
    For both the sectors there are major deviations from the norm SD scores. However, a word
    of caution needs to be added here. The sampling is accidental sampling which might have
    contributed to the deviations.
    In a SBI, the company offers a lot of job security. However the scenario is changing now
    with the banking sector being privatized. A noticeable fact for SBIs is that support is
    conditional, contingent on deference to the provider. The general attitude is one of superiority;
    the person’s support constantly reminds others of their dependency. This style does not help
    other people to become independent and to act by themselves. In a private sector, the manager
    encourages the subordinate and provides the necessary condition for support. Hence both the
    banks have high nurturing style scores.
    The ICICI Bank has high regulating scores because they are facing stiff competition. They
    want to develop proper norms of behavior for the subordinates. With the banking sector being
    privatized, the SBIs have started shrugging off their complacency and getting task focused
    rather than doing just minimum necessary to get by.
    A trend has been noted that ICICI Banks are more open to new, innovative ideas .One reason
    could be that their systems, policies and procedures are still in a nascent stage of development.
    Hence they are open to ideas that give them competitive edge in the market. This would explain
    the high scores of ICICI Bank vis-a-vis the SBI.

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  8. Changing Pattern Of Promotion In Indian Organised Retail – A Review

    On the reactive function, the ICICI Bank has high mean scores but the SBI has low scores.
    The ICICI Banks have a more open work culture vis-a-vis the SBI. People confront problems,
    fight for their ideas and suggestions.
    On the adaptive function, both the banks have average mean scores. This is a result of the
    cultural shift happening due to privatization. SBI employees are showing creative adaptability-
    learning from others, accepting others ideas, and changing their approach when required.

    8. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
    The personality of a SBI Employee is:
    Ego State Style in life OK/NOT OK
    Nurturing Parent Rescuing NOT OK
    Regulating Parent Prescriptive NOT OK
    Adult Task Obsessive/Problem Solving NOT OK/OK
    Creative Child – –
    Reactive Child Aggressive NOT OK
    Adaptive Child Resilient OK

    The personality of an ICICI Bank Employee is:
    Ego State Style in life OK/NOT OK
    Nurturing Parent Supportive OK
    Regulating Parent Normative OK
    Adult Task Obsessive/Problem Solving NOT OK/OK
    Creative Child Innovative /Bohemian OK/NOT OK
    Reactive Child Assertive OK
    Adaptive Child Resilient OK
    A certain degree of shift is seen in the SBI profile which is a clear indicator of the culture
    shift happening post privatization of the banking sector. SBIs are moving towards becoming
    more supportive, problem solving and resilient. The SBI is also moving from nurturing parent
    to critical parent style because they need to get their act together and start performing or else
    get wiped out by competition from private sector. The PSU bank had low scores on creativity
    because they are comfortable with the systems they have in place. Also they have more
    experienced workforce which is crucial in the financial sector.

    9. RECOMMENDATIONS
    1. The SBI should evolve a plan of action to evolve into a supportive parent style.
    2. The SBI should evolve a plan of action to make the workforce more creative. This would help
    them shrug complacency and stay ahead of competition.
    3. The ICICI Bank has creative employees. But they seem to be impatient with their ideas. They
    should allow an idea or practice to stabilize before going on to another.
    4. Both the SBI and ICICI Banks have high scores on rescuing style which encourages dependency
    in the organization. The banks need to evolve a plan of action to reduce the dependency.
    5. The SBI should develop an open work culture.

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  9. Sukanya Sharma, Fedric Kujur, Saumya Singh and Gairik Das

    REFERENCES
    [1] Pareek, Udai, Training Instruments in HRD and OD, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2002
    [2] Harris A Thomas, I am OK You are OK, (1st Ed, Harper and Row Publishers Inc., 1979)
    [3] Kandathil George, Neeyun Njanum, e monthly Journal of Psychology for Healthy Living,
    (No. 3, ICTA Publication, March 2004).
    [4] Jan.2005; ICFAI University Press
    [5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transactional Analysis

    http://www.iaeme.com/IJM/index.asp 73 editor@iaeme.com

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