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The monetary approach to exchange rate determination: empirical observations from the Pacific Basin economies

The monetary approach to exchange rate determination: empirical observations from the Pacific Basin economies
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The paper studies the monetary approach to exchange rate for a group of five Pacific Basin economies, using quarterly data for the period of post – Asian financial crisis. Estimated results reveal that for Thailand and the Indonesia which were most affected by Asian financial crisis, monetary model did not work for explaining exchange rate movements.

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  1. Uncertain Supply Chain Management 8 (2020) 589–598

    Contents lists available at GrowingScience

    Uncertain Supply Chain Management
    homepage: www.GrowingScience.com/uscm

    Impact of corporate social responsibility toward employees on business performance: The case
    of Vietnam

    Thi Minh Phuong Nguyena, Quang Bach Trana, Duc Tai Dob* and Dieu Linh Trana

    a
    Vinh University, Vietnam
    b
    University of Labour and Social Affairs, Vietnam
    CHRONICLE ABSTRACT

    Article history: The study aims to test the impact of social responsibility toward employees on the business
    Received November 29, 2019 performance. The sample selected includes 667 employees in the enterprises. The research
    Received in revised format results show that the social responsibility factor had direct and indirect impacts on the business
    January 31, 2020
    performance of enterprises through two intermediaries: cohesion and opportunistic workers’
    Accepted February 17 2020
    Available online behavior. Based on the research results, we propose a number of recommendations to increase
    February 17 2020 the efficiency of business operations of the enterprises through improving corporate social
    Keywords: responsibility toward employees in countries with emerging economies, including Vietnam.
    Corporate social
    responsibility
    Engagement
    Opportunistic behavior
    Business performance © 2020 by the authors; license Growing Science, Canada.

    1. Introduction
    Corporate social responsibility toward employees is attached to the employee’s work-related requirements and the
    organization’s ability to meet those requirements. Employees will most likely feel satisfied and motivated to work if they
    feel that their expectations and organizational commitment to workers are met. According to Hopkins (2003), one of the
    most obvious intangible benefits of engaging in corporate social responsibility is increased employee loyalty and
    satisfaction. Mittal et al. (2008) suggest that corporate social responsibility has a positive impact on employee productivity.
    Employees feel more satisfied with the organization’s value values. According to Jenkins (2006), Zairi and Peters (2002),
    research on corporate social responsibility will often be related to long-term benefits, not short-term benefits. Corporate
    social responsibility can also attract better employees (Turban & Greening, 1997). Backhaus et al. (2002) demonstrate that
    corporate social responsibility increases the attractiveness of a company to potential employees and the most influential
    areas of corporate social responsibility include environmental issues, community relations and diverse policies. Buzzell and
    Gale (1987) argue that performance is the degree to which an enterprise’s business goals are achieved, related to revenue
    growth, sales, profits, growth, market share, as well as the level of strategic goal completion. In this same view, Keegan et
    al. (1989) put forward a matrix of measurement of business results by classifying measurement results based on cost and
    non-cost. Improving business performance is considered as the key goal for enterprises operating in the market. Katou and
    Budhwar (2010) point out that performance is positively correlated with the reward direction, compensation based on
    performance, professional training and development for employees, assessing performance results fairly, and motivating
    employees to work. According to research by Koh and Boo (2001), corporate social responsibility performance has positive
    relationship with employee satisfaction and at the same time help employees engaged and motivated to stay longer with
    * Corresponding author
    E-mail address: taiketoanquocte@gmail.com (D.T. Do)

    © 2020 by the authors; licensee Growing Science.
    doi: 10.5267/j.uscm.2020.2.004

  2. 590
    company. Bakiev (2013) argues that high performance through intermediaries such as relationships between employee trust,
    engagement, and organizational performance awareness have a positive impact on business performance. After studying
    the relationship between remuneration, performance evaluation, promotion practices and organizational performance, the
    results of Shahzad et al. (2008) showed that these factors are positively correlated with each other. Up to now, in many of
    their research projects, many authors have mentioned the relationship between corporate social responsibility toward
    employees on business performance. Most studies favor the thesis that corporate social responsibility has a positive effect
    on business performance. Siddiq and Javed (2014), and Adamu Yusoff (2016) suggested that social responsibility of
    enterprises have a positive and strong impact on business performance. Meanwhile, Khan et al. (2016) also mentioned
    corporate social responsibility as a good measure to increase the efficiency of business operations of enterprises. Kiran et
    al. (2015) demonstrate that social responsibility has a positive impact on net profit and net profit margin, total assets of the
    company but has no significant impact on the profitability of the business. However, in the studies of Rahman et al. (2014),
    Ofori et al. (2014), there is no relationship between corporate social responsibility and business performance.
    In fact, the issue of social responsibility toward employees has been paid much attention and awareness by many businesses
    through many activities to improve the life quality of employees and their families. Enterprises which implement social
    responsibility have shown that their benefits not only do not diminish, but increase significantly. Workers have a good spirit,
    a positive working attitude, cohesion and dedication in their work are promoted. However, most Vietnamese enterprises
    with small and medium scale still have short-term thinking, fragmented and small working ways. With the aim of getting
    immediate profits, these businesses have not really taken effective measures to care for employees or ignore the interests of
    employees. Many businesses are tending to avoid the implementation of social responsibility for employees, which seriously
    impact on individual benefits of workers, working attitudes, efforts at work as well as labor productivity. As a consequence,
    this issue reduces the momentum of growth and long-term development of the business.
    In this study, we mentioned the impact of corporate social responsibility toward employees on business performance in
    Vietnamese enterprises. At the same time, this study clarifies the intermediary role of engagement and opportunistic
    behavior factors in the direct and indirect impact relationships of social responsibility and business performance of
    enterprises.
    2. Theoretical framework and Hypotheses
    2.1. Corporate social responsibility toward employees and business performance
    Maignan and Ferrell (2004) argue that a business is socially responsible for its decisions and activities to create and balance
    the various interests of individuals and organizations involved. Corporate social responsibility toward employees is tied to
    the employee’s work-related requirements and the organization’s ability to meet those requirements. Employees will most
    likely feel satisfied and motivated to work if they feel their expectations and organizational commitment to workers are met
    at a reasonable level. In addition, Carroll (1979) defines that corporate social responsibility includes society’s expectations
    of the economy, law, ethics and philanthropy of organizations at a given time. Brammer et al. (2007) proposed components
    of corporate social responsibility including: social responsibility toward society, social responsibility toward the natural
    environment, social responsibility toward customers, social responsibility toward other external parties, social responsibility
    toward the law, social responsibility for fairness in policies, social responsibility for training staff. The research results show
    a correlation between the components of corporate social responsibility and employee engagement with the organization.
    The following component is the external social responsibility of the corporations and the final part is the issue of training
    staff. Imran Ali et al. (2010) considered the impact of corporate social responsibility on employee engagement with the
    organization, as well as how corporate social responsibility and employee engagement affect organizational performance.
    The study demonstrates that corporate social responsibility including activities for the benefit of employees and their
    families increases employee engagement with the organization. The more businesses contribute to society, the more they
    attract potential employees and the more they improve their current level of engagement. Company’s positive actions
    motivate employees to introduce the company to others, making them feel more proud of their company and thus improving
    their productivity. Moreover, social responsibility also creates credibility for the business with customers, investors,
    suppliers and governments, followed by the positive effects on decision making that are beneficial to the business. Social
    responsibility also brings a competitive advantage, thereby positively affecting the effectiveness of the organization. In
    addition, organizations can enhance employee engagement by promoting socially beneficial activities. All these activities
    will affect employee engagement with the organization, thereby, affecting employee productivity and thereby increasing
    the efficiency of the organization. Neely et al. (1995) suggest that business performance is a set of criteria to quantify the
    efficiency and effectiveness of all aspects of business activities. It is tested by 03 levels: individual, business goals and the
    relationship between those evaluation criteria and the operating environment (culture, customer satisfaction, development
    strategy, etc.). Maisel (2001) assesses business performance of enterprises as a system that helps businesses build plans,
    measure and control the results of sales, marketing, information technology and decision making. business planning and
    other activities of the enterprise to set goals and create value for people with related interests. According to Kaplan and
    Norton (1993), the effectiveness of a business is determined from four basic component groups, including finance,
    customers, internal processes and development learning. It builds the basis for turning business strategy content into
    execution terms. In addition to the two direct impact factors mentioned in the research content are corporate social
    responsibility toward employees and business performance. The study also addresses intermediary factors including the
  3. T. M. P. Nguyen et al. /Uncertain Supply Chain Management 8 (2020) 591

    cohesion and opportunistic behavior of employees in the organization.
    According to Meyer and Allen (1997), organizational attachment is a psychological state that indicates the employee’s
    relationship with the organization, demonstrating an inextricable commitment to the organization and a desire to contribute
    to the accomplishment of the organization’s goals. Si and Li (2012) think that organizational engagement is mediated in the
    relationship between human resource management practices and employee behavior. Cohesion with the organization has
    the important role in regulating and creating relationships within the organization. At the same time, it creates more support
    in the work process of workers from colleagues, managers and organizations. According to O’Reilly and Chatman (1986),
    cohesion with an organization is defined as the psychological state of a member of an organization, reflecting the extent to
    which individuals absorb or accept the characteristics of the organization. Mowday et al. (1982) refer to organizational
    commitment as a relative strength of the uniformity of staff and organization and the active involvement of employees in
    an organization. Meanwhile, Charles and Jennifer (1986) have shown that engagement is the attitude of workers. The authors
    found that access to engagement in the organization was divided into three factors: compliance, identification, and
    acquisition. In particular, compliance occurs when attitudes and behaviors are accepted not by shared beliefs but simply by
    achieving a specific reward. Identity occurs when an individual feels proud to be a member of an organization, respecting
    the organization’s values and achievements without considering it as a personal achievement. Meyer and Allen (1991)
    proposed three components of engagement: (1) Affective cohesion (Affective): is the emotion of attachment, unity and
    commitment in the organization. In other words, it is desirable to be an organization member. This is the highest degree of
    personal attachment to the organization when the individual feels an integral part of the organization and the goals and
    interests of the organization are placed above the individual goals. (2) Cohesion to maintain (Continuance): is the
    willingness to work hard, employees realize that they will lose costs when leaving the organization. Therefore, once getting
    higher benefits from other corporations, workers will leave the organization. (3) Ethical commitment (Normative): as an
    obligation, employees feel obligated to continue their work. This is the most lax level of cohesion, when the obligations are
    over, workers will leave the organization. Knowing the above components, businesses should try to create emotional
    cohesion in their employees, thus ensuring long-term employee retention. Mathieu and Zajac (1990) suggest that the
    premise for employees to engage with the organization is often classified into personal characteristics, work, work
    experience and organizational characteristics. Personal characteristics refer to gender, age, education, marital status, job
    level, and seniority. Job characteristics focus on diversity in job skills, autonomy in tasks, job challenges and scope of work.
    The characteristics of an organization include its organizational policies, support, information and exchange and
    recognition. Opportunistic behavior is one that seeks personal gain through fraud (Williamson 1975), which essentially
    breaks commitments, violates obligations and responsibilities that must be fulfilled (Morgan & Hunt, 1994). In
    organizations, the types of behaviors that determine workers’ performance include those that are directly related to
    productivity, absenteeism, and manpower change. The attitude of employees is related to the level of job satisfaction.
    Satisfaction is related to labor productivity, inversely proportional to the absence of workers. Creating and improving job
    satisfaction is also the responsibility of managers to employees. Employees’ behaviors and attitudes are related to the jobs
    they undertake.
    Opportunistic behavior is considered a form of negative behavior of employees in the organization, dominated and decided
    by the awareness, attitudes and capabilities of the employees themselves. The person as a member of an organization is
    influenced by organizational factors such as culture, leadership, power, organizational structure, and groups of organizations
    in which the employee is a team member.
    2.2. Hypotheses
    Corporate social responsibility toward employees and employee engagement
    The study of Nejati and Ghasemi (2013) based on Turker (2008) confirms that corporate social responsibility toward
    employees has a positive impact on employee engagement with the organization. Research results of Maignan et al. (1999)
    indicate that social responsibility plays an important role in improving employee engagement. Turker (2008) in his study
    demonstrated that corporate social responsibility for employees has a great influence on employee engagement. In general,
    previous studies on the impact of corporate social responsibility toward employees on employee engagement with the
    organization can be classified into two categories. The first type, the authors analyze how corporate social performance
    affects potential employees (Albinger and Freeman, 2000; Backhaus et al., 2002; Turban and Greening, 1997, etc.). These
    studies support the notion that corporate social responsibility toward employees creates the company’s reputation and
    promotes its attractiveness. Second, the authors focus on the impact of the organization’s social activities on current
    employees (Peterson, 2004; Rupp et al., 2007; Wood and Jones, 1995,etc.). Riordan et al. (1997) argued that corporate
    social responsibility toward employees affects employees’ attitudes, attitudes, behaviors and cohesion. Brammer et al.
    (2007) studied and provided results of the inpact of social responsibility activities on organizational cohesion. Hence, most
    of the studies agreed and pointed out the direct and positive impact of corporate social responsibility toward employees on
    employee engagement in the organization. In the context of Vietnamese businesses, in order to test this relationship more
    accurately, we hypothesized:
    H1: Corporate social responsibility toward employees has a positive impact on employee engagement at Vietnamese
    businesses.

  4. 592
    Corporate social responsibility toward employees and opportunistic behavior
    Gond et al. (2010) clarified the impact of the implementation of social responsibility toward employees’ behaviors and
    attitudes. Viswesvaran et al. (1998) analyze the association between corporate social responsibility toward employees and
    employee’s opposing behavior. In the organization, there are always fraudulent acts, as well as taking advantage of
    important relationships and important positions to benefit themselves. This seriously influences the management activities
    as well as overall business performance. Fulfilling the corporate social responsibility toward employees has an effect on the
    employees’ positive behaviors in building positive relationships with colleagues, limiting negative behaviors and attitudes
    in work. In the context of Vietnamese businesses, how does the corporate social responsibility issue toward employees
    affect the opportunistic behavior of individuals in the enterprise? Accordingly, the following hypothesis is established in
    this study:
    H2: Corporate social responsibility toward employees has a negative impact on opportunity behavior in Vietnamese
    businesses.
    Engagement and opportunistic behavior of employees
    In Theoretical Framework for Relationship Marketing, Morgan and Hunt (1994) have shown that there is a negative
    relationship between opportunistic behavior and trust, which is the premise of the partner’s commitment to a long-term
    relationship. From an individual level in the enterprise, the research of Ritzer and Trice (1969) proved a positive relationship
    between employee engagement and compensation policy. Improving employee engagement with the organization also
    means the process of creating a stable mentality, long-term commitment and limiting negative factors, individual
    opportunity behaviors in the organization. In order to clarify the relationship between the impact of corporate engagement
    on the opportunistic behaviors of workers, the hypothesis is formulated:
    H3: Employee engagement has a negative impact on the opportunistic behavior of workers in Vietnamese businesses.
    Corporate social responsibility toward employees and business performance
    Research by Thorne et al. (1993) has demonstrated that, if an enterprise does not fulfill its social responsibility, its
    performance will be significantly reduced. Corporation’s social responsibility practices increase the willingness of existing
    employees to improve financial results (Davis, 1973; McGuire et al., 1988). Implementation of social responsibility will
    have a positive impact on the willingness of workers to participate in production and business activities, increasing
    productivity and business efficiency for businesses.
    In addition, many other studies also show similar results when evaluating corporate social responsibility toward employees
    has a positive effect on business performance like Siddiq and Javed. (2014), Babola (2012), Khan et al (2016), Akanbi and
    Ofoegbu (2012), Ahamed et al (2014), Yusoff and Adamu (2016). In order to test the impact of corporate social
    responsibility towards employees on business performance, in the context of Vietnamese businesses, this study establishes
    the following hypothesis:
    H4: Corporate social responsibility toward employees has a positive impact on the business performance of Vietnamese
    businesses.
    Employee engagement and business performance
    A number of studies by the authors pointed out that employee engagement impacts organizational processes and
    performance (Mowday et al., 1982; Allen & Meyer, 1990; Shaw et al., 2003). Imran Ali et al. (2010) demonstrated that
    employee engagement has a positive impact on organizational performance. In addition, studies of Bakiev (2013) and
    Mansour et al. (2014) also show a positive relationship between employee engagement and business performance of
    enterprises. Employee engagement is an important factor that contributes to the long-term success of the organization. To
    increase business efficiency, Vietnamese businesses always focus on the cohesion, sustainable relationship between
    colleagues and the management levels in the business. To test the relationship between these two factors, we suggest the
    following hypothesis:
    H5: The employees engagement has a positive impact on the business performance of Vietnamese businesses.
    Opportunistic behavior and business performance
    Studies have shown an indirect effect of opportunistic behavior on firm’s business performance. According to Katsikeas et
    al. (2009), there is a negative impact relationship of opportunistic behavior on trust, thereby affecting businesses
    performance. Opportunistic behavior often stems from the demand and interests of individuals. In this relationship, the need
    determines the benefits. Therefore, it is the basis of benefits, and the benefits are the opposite, derived from the demand,
    based on the demand, which is the expression of the demand. However, if the business performance of the enterprise is
    heavily influenced by personal interests, it will have a negative effect. Hence, in the context of Vietnamese enterprises,
    whether there is a direct impact relationship between the opportunistic behavior of employees on the business performance
    or not. This is the gap the study wants to make clear. The aim of the study is to clarify this research gap. Therefore, this
  5. T. M. P. Nguyen et al. /Uncertain Supply Chain Management 8 (2020) 593

    study establishes the following hypothesis:
    H6: Opportunistic behavior has a negative impact on the business performance of Vietnamese businesses.

    Engagement

    H1 (+) H5 (+)

    H3 (-)
    Social Business
    responsibility H4 (+) performance

    H2 (-) H6 (-)

    Opportunistic
    behavior

    Fig. 1. Research model
    3. Research methodology
    3.1. Measurement Scales
    Based on the theoretical overview and related research works, the paper proposes a research model with independent and
    intermediate variables including: corporate social responsibility toward employees, engagement, opportunistic behavior and
    the target variable that is business performance. The scale used in the research is a Likert scale with 5 levels (Strongly agree;
    Agree; Normal; Disagree; Strongly disagree). The indicators measuring the applied variables are adjusted in accordance
    with the characteristics of the sample from the previous studies. “Social responsibility” variable which uses scales by
    Hopkins (2003) and Clarkson (1995) includes 5 observations. “Engagement” using Meyer’s et al. (1993) consists of 5
    observations. “Opportunity behavior” using a scale of Katsikeas et al (2009) including 5 observations. Business performance
    using a Huselid scale (1995) consists of 6 observations.
    Table 1
    List of variables and indicators
    Variable Code Indicator Sources
    Corporate social TNCX1 Encouraging workers to develop skills and long-term careers through assessment Modified application of the
    responsibility and training scale of Hopkins (2003) and
    toward employees TNCX2 Anti-discrimination in recruitment, training, promotions, salaries and bonuses Clarkson (1995)
    TNCX3 Creating a safe working environment and health care for employees (preventing
    labor accidents, clean toilets, insurance, etc.)
    TNCX4 Salary of enterprises compared to the average salary of the economic sector in
    which businesses participate
    TNCX5 Interest in spiritual living conditions for employees (sports, arts, tourism)
    Engagement GK1 This company has an importan significance for me Modified application of the
    GK2 I am proud to tell my friends about my workplace scale of Meyer et al. (1993)
    GK3 I feel the obstacles of the business as my obstacles
    GK4 I’m glad to choose to work for this business
    GK5 For me, this is a great place to work
    Opportunistic CH1 In my company, managers often pursue their own interests in the working Modified application of the
    behavior process. scale of Katsikeas et al.
    CH2 My relationship with colleagues is always dominated by private interests. (2009)
    CH3 There are always personal opportunities behaviors in the working process within
    the company.
    CH4 I always had high expectations for job advancement.
    CH5 The results of my work are always heavily influenced by personal goals inside
    and outside of the job.
    Business HQ1 Recognizing that the quality of products and services of the company is Modified application of the
    performance guaranteed. scale of Huselid (1995)
    HQ2 Recognizing that that the company has developed new products and services.
    HQ3 Recognizing that the number of business products of the company has increased.
    HQ4 Noticing the positive feedback from customers.
    HQ5 Recognizing that sales of enterprises has increased.
    HQ6 Recognizing that profitability of enterprises has increased.

  6. 594
    3.2. Data Collection and Sampling
    The sample selected by the non-probability sampling method is a convenient sampling, relatively stratified by provinces
    and localities in Vietnam. The unit of analysis in this study is workers in enterprises in Vietnam. The sample size for
    collection is 667 samples. The data collection process is conducted in two ways: direct and online questionnaires
    distribution. The number of online questionnaires collected was 416, the number of available questionnaires was 358. In
    terms of direct survey, the number of questionnaires issued is 650, the number of questionnaires collected is 472, the number
    of questionnaires used is 309. The total number of valid questionnaires used for analysis is 667. Based on the study of Hair
    et al. (1998) for reference to the expected sample size, the minimum sample size is 5 times the total number of observed
    variables. With the number of observations in the paper is 21, the research scale includes 667 samples to ensure analysis
    requirements. The time to complete data collection is from August 2019 to December 2019.
    3.3. Data analysis method
    This study employs applies quantitative methods. The data after collection and cleaning are processed through SPSS and
    Amos. First, the study assesses the reliability of the scale with Cronbach’s Alpha value> 0.7. Next, the study analyses EFA
    discovery factor with the aim of determining “convergent values” and “discriminant values of the scale”. Then, using AMOS
    to assess the suitability of the research model through CFA test and finally the research conducts to test the research
    hypotheses by analyzing SEM model.
    4. Results and discussion
    Verify the reliability of the scale
    Cronbach’s Alpha test analysis results show that the reliability of the scale used in the analysis that Cronbach’s Alpha
    coefficient of all variables > 0.7. However, HQ6 indicator has Cronbach’s Alpha if Item Delete coefficient as 0.933 which
    is larger than the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient of HQ variable (0.847). Therefore, in order to increase the suitability of the
    scale, the study conducts this indicator.
    Table 2
    Assess the reliability of the scale through Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient
    Order Variable Code Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient
    1 Corporate social responsibility towards TNXH 0.891
    employees
    2 Engagement GK 0.836
    3 Opportunistic behavior CH 0.811
    4 Business performance HQ 0.933

    EFA analysis
    After conducting the test of the suitability of the scale, the research conducts the analysis of EFA discovery factor. The
    analysis process is conducted for both independent variables and dependent variables. The analysis results show that the
    data are eligible for analysis due to the load factor coefficient > 0.5 and satisfy the two conditions of “Convergence value”
    (observation variables converge on the same factor) and “Distinctive value” (observed variables that belong to one factor
    are distinguished from another).
    Table 3
    Results of analysis EFA factor
    EFA analysis KMO P-value Variance Load factor Conclusion
    coefficient extracted coefficient
    Independent variables 0.864 0.000 63.522 All coefficient >0.5 Ensure analysis requirements
    Target variables (HQ) 0.852 0.000 79.248 All coefficient >0.5 Ensure analysis requirements

    CFA analysis
    The research results indicate the appropriateness of the measurement model. Chi–square = 706.394, df = 164, Chi–square/df
    = 4.307 (0.9), TLI = 0.920 (>0.9), CFI = 0.931 (>0.9), RMSEA = 0.070 (0.9),
    CFI = 0.931 (>0.9), RMSEA = 0.070 (

  7. T. M. P. Nguyen et al. /Uncertain Supply Chain Management 8 (2020) 595

    Fig. 2. SEM model analysis

    The results of estimating the relationships in the model show that the research model is suitable. With significant levels P
    0. All hypotheses are accepted, corresponding to the results of related studies such as Nejati
    and Ghasemi (2013), Maignan et al. (1999), Turker (2008), Albinger and Freeman (2000), Backhaus et al. (2002), Green,
    Turban and Greening (1997), Brammer et al. (2007), Gond et al. 2010), Morgan and Hunt (1994), etc. With the hypotheses
    H4, H5, H6 testing the direct impact of corporate social responsibility factors on employees, engagement and opportunistic
    behavior at work on business performance in enterprises in Vietnam, the results show that the hypotheses are accepted with
    significant level P 0, the corporate social responsibility factor towards
    employees and the engagement tested have a positive effect on the business performance. This result corresponds to works
    such as Thorne et al. (1993), Davis (1973), McGuire et al. (1988), Mowday et al. (1982), Allen and Meyer (1991),
    Herscovitch and Meyer ( 2002), Katsikeas et al. (2009), etc. At the same time, the order of influence is determined by the
    regression weights of social responsibility (0.203) and employee engagement (0.194).
    Table 4
    SEM analysis results for the relationships in the model
    Hypothesis Relationship Mean S.E. C.R. P Conclusion
    H1 GK ← TNXH 0.313 0.038 8.247 0.000 Accepted
    H2 CH ←TNXH -0.137 0.042 -3.283 0.001 Accepted
    H3 CH ← GK -0.363 0.051 -7.166 0.000 Accepted
    H4 HQ ← TNXH 0.203 0.033 6.105 0.000 Accepted
    H5 HQ ← GK 0.194 0.041 4.698 0.000 Accepted
    H6 HQ ← CH -0.169 0.039 -4.290 0.000 Accepted

    In addition, the research results also show that, with the regression weight of -0.169 (

  8. 596
    performance of corporations in Vietnam. Therefore, if there are more negative opportunistic behaviors, they will affect the
    productivity of both individuals and organizations, leading to reduction in business performance. At the same time this has
    a negative impact on the psychology of other employees in the organization. This poses a demand for businesses to pay
    more attention to the opportunistic behaviors of individuals in the organization, to limit negative behaviors and
    individualism without the benefit of collectives.
    Descriptive statistical analysis
    It can be noticed that the importance of the factors of social responsibility, engagement and opportunistic behavior for
    business performance. In addition, the determination of the average value also shows the reality of each factor in this study
    to the business performance of enterprises. With the highest average value of the variables included in the model as 3.9106,
    it can be seen that the average business performance of Vietnamese enterprises is quite high. However, if compared with
    the overall business performance of countries in the region and the world in terms of both the size and the growth rate, this
    index is still relatively low. Corporate social responsibility toward employees is also a factor that Vietnamese businesses
    should to pay more attention and focus. The mean value of this factor according to the evaluation level of the study is
    3.6573. This index is not really as expected and need to have more improved policies in the near future for businesses.
    Besides, the mean value of opportunistic behavior is 2.2117. Although compared to other factors in the model, this is the
    lowest rated, reflecting the positive side in business management activities. However, this is still a relatively high number
    compared to a factor reflecting the downside of management activity. Businesses should pay more attention to the
    opportunistic behaviors of individuals in the organization. It is important to develop specific targets for managers and
    employees in each unit. Moreover, businesses should encourage employees to enhance their work by fairly evaluating
    policies and recording achievements and creating reasonable incentives. Strengthen control activities in the enterprise is
    considered as an ideal way to limit self-reliance and psychological dependence on work.
    Table 5
    The results of the descriptive statistical analysis of the variables’ value
    Variable N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
    HQ 667 1.00 5.00 3.9106 0.52852
    TNXH 667 1.00 5.00 3.6573 0.65642
    GK 667 1.00 5.00 3.7247 0.55098
    CH 667 1.00 4.80 2.2117 0.57269

    5. Conclusions and implications
    This study has examined the impact of corporate social responsibility toward employees on business performance of
    enterprises through two intermediaries: engagement and opportunistic behavior in the context of Vietnamese enterprises.
    The research results have indicated that the social responsibility factor had a direct and indirect effect on the business
    performance through two intermediaries: engagement and opportunistic behavior of employees. In particular, corporate
    social responsibility toward employees and engagement are tested to have a positive impact on the business performance of
    enterprises with the order of influence identified as social responsibility, employee engagement. At the same time, the study
    has also pointed out the negative impact of opportunistic behavior factor on the business performance of Vietnamese
    enterprises. Based on the research results, we propose some following suggestions as below:
    Firstly, in terms of corporate social responsibility toward employees, enterprises should encourage employees to develop
    skills and long-term career through reasonable job evaluation activities, creating opportunities for employees to be trained
    and develop occupational skills. Besides, discrimination in all management activities and labor policies should be avoided
    from recruitment, labor relations, allowances, etc. It is significantly important to create a safe working environment and
    health and spiritual care for workers.
    Secondly, in terms of engagement, paying attention to the demand of the mid-level executive’s job is considered of vital
    importance for leaders to improve business performance. In addition to meeting the physical needs, businesses need to focus
    on developing the skills of each individual, recognizing the manager’s performance appropriately and listening to their
    feedback and even employees under management to have timely encouragement policies. It is necessary to create a dynamic
    working environment, foster relationships between colleagues in the organization, create a professional working culture,
    build a friendly atmosphere, enhance support and coordination in work between individuals and divisions within the
    organization so that middle managers can maximize their capabilities in the job.
    Last but not least, in terms of opportunistic behavior of individuals in the organization, it is important to develop specific
    targets for managers and employees in each unit. Businesses should encourage employees to enhance their work by fairly
    evaluating policies and recording achievements and creating reasonable incentives. Strengthen control activities in the
    enterprise is considered as an ideal way to limit self-reliance and psychological dependence on work.

  9. T. M. P. Nguyen et al. /Uncertain Supply Chain Management 8 (2020) 597

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