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This study aims to shed light on the way customers determine their utilization of international payment services with blockchain applications. The primary data is collected from the 373 individuals who frequently use the international payment services in Vietnam.

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  1. Uncertain Supply Chain Management 8 (2020) 439–456

    Contents lists available at GrowingScience

    Uncertain Supply Chain Management
    homepage: www.GrowingScience.com/uscm

    The determinants of customer’s intention to use international payment services by applying
    blockchain

    Ha Nguyet Dama*, Dung Thanh Phana, Duc Tien Vub and Lan Thi Ngoc Nguyenc

    a
    Excellent Banking 59, School of Advanced Educational Programs, National Economics University, Vietnam
    b
    Business Analytics 61, School of Advanced Educational Programs, National Economics University, Vietnam
    c
    School of Economics, Finance and Management, The University of Bristol, United Kingdom
    CHRONICLE ABSTRACT

    Article history: This study aims to shed light on the way customers determine their utilization of international
    Received January 29, 2020 payment services with blockchain applications. The primary data is collected from the 373
    Received in revised format March individuals who frequently use the international payment services in Vietnam. We apply the
    27, 2020
    combination of TAM, UTAUT, and ISS models to test the determinants of the Intention to use
    Accepted May 9 2020
    Available online International payment services at Commercial banks applying Blockchain. These determinants
    May 9 2020 are Quality of System, Quality of Service, Quality of Information, Perceivable usefulness,
    Keywords: Convenient usefulness, and Social influence. The research results show that (i) All of the above
    Blockchain factors are positively associated with customers’ intention to use international payment
    Commercial Banks services in Vietnamese banks which implement blockchain; (ii) The quality of information has
    Determinants the strongest positive impact on the customer’s intended use. It refers that the international
    Intention to use payment services in banks should be safe, accurate and timely; (iii) Differently from the
    International payment hypothesis, the social influence indicator is positively related to the customer’s intention to use
    the service, affirming the potential interests of customers on blockchain if applying
    successfully in banks; (iv) Although current customers have not paid much attention whether
    banks apply blockchain in international payment or not, they have taken concentration on
    fundamental risks, costs, and convenience of the services. This signal is consistent with the
    fact that only 2/46 commercial banks and 49 foreign bank branches in Vietnam provide
    international payment service with blockchain application nowadays.

    © 2020 by the authors; license Growing Science, Canada.

    1. Introduction
    International payments continue to grow, but technological progress poses an extremely urgent
    challenge for the incumbents, especially in banking industry. This is because these banks were
    developed in a time when communications were costly, slow, and unreliable. Now, another problem
    these banks have to face is the increasing demand for a faster and more convenient digital standard of
    International payment services (Faden, 2019). Regulatory activism, on the other hand, is driving up the
    complexity and costs of compliance in delivering international payments. This pushes the service
    industry towards a profound transformation which requires the integration of advanced technology, the
    enhancement of international payment services. Global banking giants will find themselves in a strong
    * Corresponding author Tel.: +84788335787
    E-mail address: damnguyetha24@gmail.com (H.N. Dam)

    © 2020 by the authors; licensee Growing Science.
    doi: 10.5267/j.uscm.2020.5.003

  2. 440

    position as long as they invent and reinvent themselves. By contrast, small domestic banks will continue
    to outsource the activities in which they are subscale, including applying technology to international
    payments. Mid-sized banks will face the toughest strategic options (Barbey et al., 2017).

    Blockchain is the general term for distributed ledger technology (DLT) distributed on many systems
    (tamper-proof). According to Mr. Sanjay Chakrabarty – Deputy General Director of Orient Commercial
    Bank (OCB) – with blockchain, people find it easier, faster, more convenient, and more secure when
    they make financial transactions or investment decisions than the traditional way (OCB, 2019).
    Blockchain is the underlying technology that creates virtual currencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum, and
    furthermore, involves directly in streamline transaction processes, making them more efficient and
    economical. Traditionally, banking and payment transactions have relied on a central authority or
    middleman to make payments, resulting negatively in the transparency, timeliness, and reliability in
    recognizing and managing these translations. The Blockchain appears to overcome these problems, to
    allows a distributed computer network to reach consensus without the need for this middleman (Belin,
    2008).

    Practically blockchain has become more and more and more popular since 2017 when banking services
    witnessed many collapses in Irish, Spanish and Icelandic. In European countries, IBM has developed a
    new blockchain technology that will be used by seven of Europe’s largest banks, including Deutsche
    Bank, HSBC, KBC, Natixis, Rabobank, Societe Generale, and Unicredit to promote international trades
    for small and medium-sized businesses (Kharpal, 2017). In Asia, OCBC Bank is the first bank in the
    world to use Blockchain technology in domestic and international remittance services, increasing
    efficiency, transparency, reducing costs and improving customer experience (OCBC, 2016). In
    Vietnam, in July 2018, NAPAS cooperated with three banks including VietinBank, VIB and TPBank
    to successfully conduct interbank money transfer transactions using Blockchain. TP Bank is the first
    bank to apply Blockchain in money transfer while HSBC has successfully implemented Letter of Credit
    (L/C) transactions on the Blockchain platform between two large enterprises in plastic market (TPBank,
    2019). This confirms the popularity of Blockchain platforms in international payment systems of
    commercial banks. However, it is no doubt to say that scholars do not pay much attention on customers’
    decision to use international payment services at banks that have applied blockchain, resulting to a
    relatively shortage in the literature review.

    Theoretically, one study about the application of Blockchain in the International Payment system found
    that the blockchain platform can help banks form a faster, more flexible and secure international
    payment system (Chen and Hayashikawa, 2018). Therefore, the implementation of general research on
    applying Blockchain is necessary at this moment for banks and its clients, even with little empirical
    evidence worldwide. Empirically, TAM, UTAUT, ISS models have been applied to investigate the
    determinants of customers’ decision to use online services such as online shopping, e-banking services
    and 3G services (Ly, 2018; Dung, 2019). Thus, we will apply these models to analyze the topic:
    “Determinants of customers’ decision to use International Payment Services at Commercial banks
    Applying Blockchain Platform in Vietnam”.

    2. Literature review

    2.1. Three models on determinants of customers’ decisions

    As mentioned above, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), UTAUT, and ISS are three famous
    models in analyzing the determinants of customers’ intention, especially popular in developing
    countries. TAM, originally introduced by Davis et al. (1989), illustrates the degree to which a person
    believes that using a system would enhance his or her job performance. UTAUT is a combination of
    many factors from other theoretical models with the goal of creating a common perspective for users
    with new information systems. The combination is among TRA, TPB, TAM, motivation models,

  3. H.N. Dam et al. /Uncertain Supply Chain Management 8 (2020) 441

    innovation diffusion theory (IDT), social cognitive theory (Social Cognitive Theory) (Venkatesh et al.,
    2003). Developed by Delone and Mclean (1992), ISS is commonly used to measure the success of
    information technology systems under users’ evaluation (Smith & Kumar, 2003). There should be an
    overlap between the TAM and UTAUT models in the convenient usefulness, the intended to use, and
    behavior to use variables. As for the ISS model, which was built to evaluate the satisfaction of the new
    technology system, it overlaps the TAM and UTAUT models in the independent variable Intended to
    use.

    In the study Adoption of Blockchains – A Cross Cultural Comparison by Franziska (2016), UTAUT
    and TAM models are applied to assess the impact of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social
    influence, facilitating conditions, and some regulatory variables such as habit, culture on behavioral
    intention. Similarly, Kim and Gim (2017) analyze factors influencing the intention to accept blockchain
    based on UTAUT. They point out that five factors related to the performance expectancy and effort
    expectancy are associated with the utilization of blockchain technology. However, there are not many
    studies on international payment services in banks using TAM, UTAUT, ISS models because these
    services are new and different among countries due to the different in national regulations. Therefore,
    we will deep in this theoretical gap by applying these three models to find the determinants of the
    customers’ intention to use international payment services in Vietnamese banks.

    2.2. Blockchain

    About the core concepts of the blockchain, a typical example for a blockchain is illustrated in Fig. 1
    (Zheng et al., 2017). A blockchain consists of data sets which has a sequence of data packages (blocks)
    where each block consists of multiple transactions. In fact, the blockchain is a series of blocks,
    containing a complete list of transaction records like conventional public ledger (Lee, 2015). This
    consensus mechanism is a set of rules and procedures that allows maintaining a coherent set of facts
    between multiple participating nodes (Swanson, 2015). In this process, new transactions are not
    automatically added to the ledger. Instead, the consensus process ensures that these transactions are
    stored in a block for a certain period of time before being transferred to the ledger. Afterwards, the
    information in the blockchain cannot be changed.

    Genesis block Block i Block i+1
    Fig. 1. Example of a Blockchain
    In financial market, the popularity of blockchain might be a strong evidence that it is increasing the
    firm’s performance directly as well as indirectly and that its concepts are truly beneficial (Nakamoto,
    2008; Peters et al., 2015). Blockchain technology could be applied for clearing or settling financial
    assets, maintaining a constant level of costs, and reducing credit risks (Morini, 2016). This is why a lot
    of big organizations have already implemented blockchain such as Microsoft Azure (Azure Blockchain
    Service overview – Azure Blockchain, 2020) and IBM (IBM, 2016). In the international market, many
    practical evidences show that blockchain speeds up international payment processing services,
    supporting real-time domestic and cross-border payments at a lower cost (Peyton, 2016). In fact,
    numerous initiatives are focusing on applying blockchain to accelerate and reduce the cost of trading
    (Commonwealth Bank, 2016; Fortune, 2016). In a recent proof of concept, Commonwealth Bank of
    Australia, Wells Fargo, and Brighann Cotton undertook what was believed to be the first live global
    blockchain-based transaction. The transaction involved a collaborative workflow to track and pay for
    a shipment of cotton between two Brighann units in Texas and China (Commonwealth Bank, 2016).

  4. 442

    In Vietnam, the development of digital banking creates many new breakthroughs in all aspects, in which
    international payment services have also been improved to bring more benefits to users. However, a
    significant disagreement among practitioners has been arisen due to the potential risks that blockchain
    might result in. First of all, credit market witnesses an ethical risk that occurs in cases when the seller
    transfers financial assets but does not receive payment, the buyer has paid the goods but has not
    received. Second, liquidity risk also occurs when a partner does not pay the full value of a payment
    obligation when it is due. The reason is that the partner lacks solvency, which means that it is unable
    to convert assets into liquidity capital. Thirdly, legal risks happen when the payment obligation is not
    completed due to the differences in laws or legal guidelines related to multilateral payment systems
    (PV, 2017). The reason responsible for this risk is the lack of government guarantee for international
    payment, leading to the lack of payment security (Oliver, 2018).

    In conclusion, with the increasing demand for a better customer service, commercial banks should take
    advantages of advanced technology to improve their security, their transparency, and the timeliness
    before enhancing their competitive advantages. Blockchain might be a good solution overcoming these
    issues, although it does not guarantee a better outcome because of its drawbacks related to credit risk.
    The number of studies on the issues are negligible, especially in Vietnam where no studies on
    customers’ decision to use international payment services at banks can be found. In addition to the
    fundamental risks, the limitations of international payment services at Vietnamese banks are
    complicated and troublesome paperwork. Their customers, as a result, encounter many inconveniences
    such as waiting for a long time and the inaccuracy of transactions (Chuyen Tien Nhanh, 2020).
    Therefore, it is no doubt to say that understanding the customers’ decision to use international payment
    services is necessary.

    3. Research methodology

    3.1. Model Design

    Based on TAM of Davis et al. (1989), UTAUT of Venkatesh et al. (2003), ISS of Delone and Mclean
    (1992) and Smith and Kumar (2003), the research team came up with the proposed model including 6
    independent variables, 2 dependent variables and 5 moderating variables. The variables are shown as
    the model below:

    Fig. 2. Summary of Research model on determinants of customers’ decision to use international
    payment services at commercial banks applying Blockchain in Vietnam

  5. H.N. Dam et al. /Uncertain Supply Chain Management 8 (2020) 443

    We conducted Cronbach Alpha, EFA tests at SPSS software and CFA tests at AMOS for all variables.
    After that, we get regression model results with the following independent and dependent variables
    after SEM test from AMOS software:

    IU = β0 + β1×QIPU + β2×QSQV + β3×CU + β4×SI (1)
    NI = µ0 + µ1×IU (2)
    where
    ● QIPU: Usefulness of information quality
    ● QSQV: System and service quality
    ● CU: Convenient usefulness
    ● SI: Social influence
    ● IU: Intended to use
    ● NI: Net benefits.

    3.2. Hypotheses

    Based on the theoretical framework stated in Literature review, the team will make 5 hypotheses
    showing the relationship between variables as follows:

    H1: The quality of the commercial bank system and quality of international payment service are
    positively correlated with customers’ intended to use at commercial banks.

    With the tendency of applying science and technology platforms to the system to improve the quality
    of products, banking services are no exception. Indeed, international payment (IP) with blockchain
    implementation helps banks be sufficiently sensible to capture dramatic changes in innovation within
    the business environment alongside the advancement of automation in crediting services in the financial
    industry. In addition to the operation acceleration, cost reduction, international payments using
    Blockchain help current procedures with timely verification, thereby, ensuring the authority and the
    transparency of transactions. For example, derivative market can take advantages of blockchain to
    reduce frictions and the portfolio selection risks (Morini, 2016). Therefore, the application of
    blockchain facilitates financial transactions or investment decisions become easier, cheaper, and safer
    than the traditional way (OCB, 2019).

    The application of this technology platform also modernizes banking services, facilitates the
    improvement of human resources qualifications, thereby satisfying different customer groups in the
    future. It will promote the confidence of potential customers who have intended to use this international
    payment service by improving their satisfaction and trust. Therefore, the quality of commercial banking
    system and the quality of international payment service are positively related to the customers’ intended
    to use at commercial banks.

    H2: The quality of customer transaction information is positively associated with the customers’
    intended use at commercial banks.

    Following of Blockchain, the technology platform has brought many positive trading signals on digital
    banking services, particularly in international financial transactions (Nakamoto, 2008) and risk
    management (Eyal & Sirer, 2014). Compared to traditional international payment services, transactions
    are processed at a faster rate by reducing the complexity of multiple measures. A technological
    information system combined with blockchain can reduce fundamental risks but achieve higher security
    levels (Micheler & Heyde, 2016; (Morini, 2016). This system combines a reliable recognition process,
    thereby increasing the usefulness of international payment services. In addition, the application of
    Blockchain will encourage the coordination among departments, helping the banks with more
    transparence, alignment, and better performance. This is because the more accurate the quality of

  6. 444

    information are, the more useful the system will be. Therefore, it is little doubt to say that meeting the
    needs of transaction information simultaneously increases customer satisfaction boosting their
    confidence, thereby, increasing their intention to use international transaction services.

    H3: The convenient usefulness of banking with blockchain implementation is positively associated with
    the intended use of customers at commercial banks.

    It can be said that the convenience and satisfaction play an important role in customer service,
    especially accelerating customers’ intention (Kim & Gim, 2017). In fact, the positive feedbacks on the
    convenience after applying blockchain are sources of motivations for the success of international
    payment services in Vietnam (Nguyen, 2010). This means that with a faster transaction speed, lower
    prices, and higher security level, the banks applying blockchain have increased customers’ satisfaction
    by upgrading the convenience of international transaction services. Although a technology platform is
    not yet popular, especially in Vietnam market, Blockchain has received positive feedback on its
    convenient usefulness. Specifically, public blockchains have attracted many users and have received
    many positive responses from users (Nguyen, 2010). Therefore, the rice in convenient level of
    international payment service applying Blockchain will help the banks increase customers intention to
    use this service.

    H4: The social influence negatively affects customers’ intended use at commercial banks.

    Along with minimizing the limitations of the foreign trade contract process, international payment plays
    an important role in generating more profits and promoting other banking activities. This is recognized
    by the society, which has a positive impact when international payment transactions flow smoothly
    (Mai, 2015). On the other hand, with the current high-speed information processing needs, blockchain
    faces many obstacles when it is limited in speed. Meanwhile, due to the small size of the blocks, many
    small transactions are delayed because miners prefer those transactions with high transaction fees.
    However, large block sizes will slow down the propagation rate and lead to blockchain branches
    (Zyskind et al., 2015). Therefore, the scalability problem is complicated and difficult to banks in
    serving a higher quality service. In Vietnam, due to the restricting in accessing to new information,
    customers tend to use traditional services which are more familiar with them rather than international
    transactions services applying blockchain. They believe that the complexity of blockchain might result
    in a misunderstanding and delay in their transactions (Nguyen, 2010). Therefore, the social impacts
    will negatively affect customers’ decisions when using international payment services in Vietnamese
    commercial banks.

    H5: The increase in the customers’ intention help customers with higher benefits in international
    transaction services.

    According to Morini (2016) and Jaag et al. (2016), customers who use financial services with
    Blockchain’s implementation can benefit themselves with lower transaction costs, lower credit risks
    but higher level of security. By contrast, traditional international payment services contain many
    limitations related to interest rates, the transactions’ timeliness, transaction costs, and opportunity costs.
    Technology innovation created by blockchain helps customers with more timely recognitions, and
    convenient services, especially for derivative markets which includes a complicated command of
    transactions among investors, hedgers, speculators, and arbitragers. With up-to-date international
    transaction services supplied by commercial banks, customers have more choices in investment
    decisions to optimize their benefits. In Vietnam where the derivative market is new and unsecured,
    using this type of service ensure the safety of customers in improving their investment decision making
    process. Therefore, it can be said that the increase in the customers’ intention to use international
    transaction services in commercial banks which use blockchain will further enhance the customers’
    benefits.

  7. H.N. Dam et al. /Uncertain Supply Chain Management 8 (2020) 445

    In addition to five different hypotheses above, we also investigate the relationship between moderating
    variables and customers’ intention to use international services applying blockchain. This is because
    human-related indicators showing the income, education, gender, age, and occupation can influence
    the dependent variable. According to ManpowerGroup recruitment and HR consultancy report 2019,
    the average income of Vietnamese people is only about 242 USD per month, resulting in the frequency
    of using international banking services. The differences between genders and ages also impact on the
    consumption of banking services (Vu, 2015; Thuy, 2019). We have built the following scales for
    moderator variables to test their influence on the customers’ intention to use international transaction
    services at commercial banks.

    Table 1
    The Moderating variables
    Moderating
    The scales
    variable

    Gender Male Female

    From 16 From 23 From 31 From 45
    Age Over 55
    to 22 to 30 to 45 to 55

    Career Officers and employees Student Other

    Education level Undergraduate Graduate Post-university

    From 3 million From 11
    From 8 million to Over 20
    Monthly income Less than 3 million to million to
    10 million million
    7 million 20 million
    Source: Authors

    To sum up, 2 dependent variables were chosen for this study basing on literature review, including
    intended to use (IU) and net benefits (NB) (Morini, 2016; Jaag et al., 2016; Venkatesh et al., 2003).
    Then, the research team come up with the proposed model include 6 independent variables:

    Table 2
    The independent variables in model research
    Scales of Full name of Expected Reference
    Variable Variable signal

    QI1, QI2, Quality of + Delone and McLean (1992),
    QI3, QI4 Information Nakamoto (2008), Zhang and Wen (2015)

    PU1, PU2, Perceivable Davis et al. (1993), Eyal and Sirer (2014), Morini (2016)
    PU3, PU4, PU5 usefulness

    QS1, QS2, QS3, Quality of System + Morini (2016), Hardjono and Smith (2016), Delone and
    QS4, QS5, QS6 McLean, (1992)

    QV1, QV2, Quality of Service Delone and McLean (1992)
    QV3, QV4, QV5

    CU1, CU2, CU3, Convenient + Zhang and Wen (2015), Hardjono and Smith (2016),
    CU4, CU5 usefulness Venkatesh and Davis (2010)

    SI1, SI2, Social Influence – Nakamoto (2008), IBM (2016)
    SI3, SI4
    Source: Authors’ compilation from primary data

  8. 446

    3.3. Sample descriptions

    Firstly, in terms of gender of the surveyed people, out of 373 surveyed questions, there were 164 people
    were male, accounting for 44 percent, female survey respondents were 209 people accounting for 56
    percent. In general, the gender distribution of the surveyed woman is much larger than the number of
    men (more than 45 people, equivalent to 12 percent). This is also a proportion consistent with the world
    trend of society that the research team believes will make the most objective conclusions for this paper.

    Secondly, based on the social and human nature of Vietnam, the research team had divided the age
    ranges according to the nature of education, working age and the purpose of users of international
    payment services. The team divided the age into five groups including “from 16 to 22”, “from 23 to
    30”, “from 31 to 45”, “from 45 to 55” and “over 55 “. Based on the results collected and synthesized
    from the research team, the youngest age “from 16 to 22” accounts for a completely superior rate
    compared to other customer segments with 263 people (70.5 percent). In addition, the next age groups
    are fairly evenly distributed in the 3 age ranges “from 23 to 30”, “from 31 to 45” and “from 45 to 55”
    accounting for a total of 28.1 percent, equivalent to more than a quarter of the qualified votes, of which
    the percentage of each age group was 12.3 percent (46 people), 9.9 percent (37 people) and 5.9 percent
    (22 people). However, from the age of 55 and up, the number of participants accounted for only 1.3
    percent, equivalent to 5 people.

    Thirdly, regarding the career of the people who had a satisfactory vote, the research group was based
    on the goal of two main subjects: Vietnamese overseas students and office workers to give 3 main
    categories of career. Other groups accounted for the least with 23/373 people, equivalent to 6.2 percent.
    Survey results show that the quantity of Vietnamese overseas students is 264 people, accounting for
    70.8 percent and office workers are 86 people (23.1 percent), equivalent to about a quarter of the
    qualified votes.

    Regarding education level, it is obvious to see that the highest rate is 78.8 percent (more than 3/4 of the
    qualified votes) – 294 people had graduated. Postgraduate people had 57/373 votes, accounting for 15.3
    percent. Finally, with only about nearly one-third of the number of postgraduate, the number of
    undergraduate accounts for only 5.9 percent with 22 votes. Regarding the income level, based on the
    results of the survey, it is easy to see that the relatively even number of the three customers with income
    greater than 8 million per month with 8.8 percent; 9.1 percent and 10.5 percent in each income group
    “from 8 to 10 million” (33 people), “from 11 to 20 million” (34 people) and “more than 20 million”
    (39 people). A slightly higher with 16.9 percent, there are 63 votes at an income of “from 3 to 7 million”
    per month. Finally, corresponding to the age scale, the common income level for students is less than
    3 million, there are 204 votes, accounting for 54.7 percent (more than half of the votes considered).

    4. Results

    4.1. Descriptive statistical results

    Regarding the factor “Intended to use”, the differentiation of the survey results is quite focused on
    “Agree” or “Undecided” on the first three scales, however, on the last scale IU4, the results of the votes
    mainly distributed on levels ranging from “Disagree” to “Agree”. With the first 3 scales, the level of
    “Agree” is always the highest with IU1, IU2 and IU3 respectively 226, 190 and 176 votes, accounting
    for 60.6 percent, 50.9 percent and 47.18 percent. Realizing the first step that customers want to have
    themselves and their relatives and friends have more opportunities to use the Blockchain technology
    application in international payment services. Meanwhile on the IU4 scale, the level of “Agree” is still
    at the highest level but is quite uniform with 2 levels “Undecided” and “Disagree” with respectively
    127, 112 and 84 votes. This reinforces the desire to use this technology in international payment
    services, but customers still need more time to evaluate and become familiar with the application.

  9. H.N. Dam et al. /Uncertain Supply Chain Management 8 (2020) 447

    250
    200
    150
    100
    50
    0
    IU1 IU2 IU3 IU4

    Completely disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly agree

    Fig. 3. Statistical results of the variable “Intended to use”
    Regarding the factor “Net benefit”, the differentiation of the survey results is quite focused on “Agree”
    or “Undecided” on all scales. However, on the NI4 scale, the level of “Agree” with 153 votes is almost
    equivalent to the level of “Undecided” is 135 votes, the remaining levels make up a minority of less
    than 50 votes. This shows a good response to the level of excitement customers use when using
    international payment services at banks that apply Blockchain technology, but the high possibility is
    still undecided because of the lack of time and knowledge of this issue. Meanwhile on the remaining
    scales, the level of “Agree” is much higher than the other levels, respectively 182 votes – NI1, 177 votes
    – NI2 and 200 votes – NI3. From there, we can initially see a good response of satisfaction and
    confidence in using international payment services at banks that apply Blockchain technology in both
    the present and the future.

    250
    200
    150
    100
    50
    0
    NI1 NI2 NI3 NI4

    Completely disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly agree

    Fig. 4. Statistical results of the variable “Net benefits”
    4.2. Cronbach Alpha test results
    The reliability of the scales is assessed based on the Cronbach Alpha index. The coefficient of variation
    ranges from 0 to 1, the higher the coefficient, the better the reliability. However, a coefficient of
    Cronbach Alpha higher than 0.95 will occur duplication in the scale (Nunnally, 1978).

    Table 3
    Results after testing Cronbach’s Alpha
    No Variable Initial Variables Remaining Variables Cronbach’s Alpha
    1 Independent Variables
    1.1 Quality of information 4 4 0.892
    1.2 Quality of system 6 6 0.909
    1.3 Quality of service 5 5 0.895
    1.4 Social Influence 4 4 0.868
    1.5 Perceivable usefulness 5 5 0.912
    1.6 Convenient usefulness 5 5 0.875
    2 Dependent Variables
    2.1 Intended to use 4 4 0.83
    2.2 Net benefit 4 4 0.92
    Source: Authors compilation results from primary data

  10. 448

    Looking at the results table above, the selected scales have very good measurement capacity (0.8 to
    0.92), which is an ideal condition for the results of the research.

    4.3. EFA Exploratory Factor Analysis in SPSS

    Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure (KMO) of Sampling Adequacy = 0.949 > 0.5: kernel analysis is suitable
    for the research data. Sig. Bartlett’s Test is Sig =0.000 < 0.05 so observed variables have no correlation
    with each other in the whole. Although, the Pattern Matrix has some error when having the variables
    have no meaning, but the research group fixed by removing the variables QV, QV4, QS1, QV5. The
    results are shown as below:

    Table 4
    Summary of EFA test results for the model
    Testing EFA 1st 2nd 3rd
    Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin
    Measure of Sampling
    Adequacy (KMO) 0.949 0.947 0.946
    Sig of KMO
    and Bartlett’s Test 0.000 0.000 0.000
    There are 3 variables not There are 1 variable not
    Error of the classified into any group and classified into any group and There are
    model when testing no component coefficients no component coefficients no errors
    Remove variables
    of models QV1, QV4, QS1 QV5
    Source: Authors compilation results from primary data

    After testing the correlation and EFA rotation matrix, the team found that the model has 33 scales and
    reallocates them to 6 different groups of factors.

    Table 5
    New factors reallocated in the model
    Usefulness of information quality (QIPU)

    PU1 PU2 PU3 PU4 PU5 QI1 QI2 QI3 QI4

    System and service quality (QSQV)

    QS2 QS3 QS4 QS5 QS6 QV2 QV3

    Convenient usefulness (CU)

    CU1 CU2 CU3 CU4 CU5

    Social Influence (SI)

    SI1 SI2 SI3 SI4

    Intended to use (IU)

    IU1 IU2 IU3 IU4

    Net benefit (NI)

    NI1 NI2 NI3 NI4
    Source: Authors compilation results from primary data

  11. H.N. Dam et al. /Uncertain Supply Chain Management 8 (2020) 449

    4.4. CFA Confirmatory Factor Analysis results

    Therefore, the all the scale can be viewed as compatible with market data. The factor weights are greater
    than 0.5, so it can be concluded that the components of their scale reach convergent values. The
    correlation coefficient the factor in their scale is less than 0.9 so it can be considered that they reach a
    discriminant value when measuring all factor in model. The results are shown as below:

    Table 6
    Summary of CFA test results for variables
    Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) Results Chi-square/df CFI GFI RMSEA
    Usefulness of information quality (QIPU) 4.141 0.967 0.939 0.092
    System and service quality (QSQV) 6.557 0.959 0.934 0.12
    Convenient usefulness (CU) 6.318 0.972 0.968 0.12
    Social influence (SI) 9.648 0.976 0.973 0.15
    Intended to use (IU) 5.857 0.984 0.985 0.11
    Net benefits (NI) 0.024 1.00 1.00 0.000
    Source: Authors compilation results from primary data

    The majority of Chi-square / df is greater than 5 but the CFI, GFI> 0.9 and RMSEA most < 0.15 are
    perfectly suitable. Therefore, the all the scale can be viewed as compatible with market data.

    4.5. Analysis results of saturated model

    To test the discriminant value, we need to use the saturated model, which is a model of established
    factors that are freely interrelated. The results of CFA analysis after adjusting possible relationships
    coefficients show that Chi-square/df = 3.401 greater than 3 but smaller than 5 is good, CFI = 0.81 > 0.8
    is good, RMSEA =0.080 < 0.1 is good. The saturated model testing results shows that the number of
    free parameters (the scales of variable) is exactly equals the number of variances and unique
    covariances.

    Fig. 5. Analysis results of saturated model
    4.6. Analysis results using structural equation modeling and testing of research hypotheses

    The results of the relationship analysis between the variables in the model show that the independent
    variables are satisfied and affect the dependent variable in the model as Table 7. The results of
    estimating the regression coefficients of the relationships in the model are presented in the table, this
    result shows that all relationships are statistically significant (p_value < 0.05). Then, the regression
    equations for relationships can be rewritten as follows:

    Relationship between Usefulness of information quality (QIPU), System and service quality (QSQV),
    Convenient usefulness (CU), Social influence (SI) to Intended to use (IU):

  12. 450

    Table 7
    Structural equation modeling results model
    Impact Estimate S.E. C.R. P
    IU ⭠ QIPU 0.349 0.072 4.866 ***
    IU ⭠ QSQV 0.315 0.074 4.244 ***
    IU ⭠ CU 0.155 0.055 2.812 0.005
    IU ⭠ SI 0.080 0.041 1.962 0.005
    NI ⭠ IU 1.039 0.051 20.268 ***
    Source: Authors compilation results from primary data

    IU = 0.349QIPU + 0.315QSQV + 0.155CU + 0.080SI (3)
    Relationship between Intended to use (IU) to Net benefit (NI):
    NI = 1.039IU (4)

    4.7. Discussion of the results

    In general, the results show that we may accept hypotheses H1, H2, H3, H5 and reject hypothesis H4.

    Firstly, the result of QSQV variable bearing positive sign in the regression model number (1) is
    perfectly suitable (The hypothesis 1 is totally accepted) since the banks with good system quality and
    services can satisfy customers better and help customers improve transaction speed, complete
    procedures faster when using international payment services in Vietnam (Nguyen, 2010). So, it is very
    suitable for the application of Blockchain to the international payment system in order to improve
    financial transactions or investment decisions become easy and convenient (OCB, 2019).

    Secondly, the result of QIPU variable bearing positive sign in the regression model number (1) are
    perfectly suitable (The hypothesis 2 is totally accepted) since when the quality of information is
    improved, payment transactions and customer information when using international payment services
    will be guaranteed more safe, accurate and timely in Vietnam (Ha, 2014). Vietnam has successfully
    applied the Blockchain application to the international payment system for L/C services at HSBC
    between Duy Tan Company with Korean steel company, significantly reducing the previous transaction
    time of 2-3 trading days in just 24 hours, on the other hand, the cost is also lower and transaction
    information are secured.

    Thirdly, the result of CU variable bearing positive sign in the regression model number (1) is perfectly
    suitable (The hypothesis 3 is totally accepted) since when the bank offers easy and diversified
    international payment services, it will meet many customer transaction purposes, while developing new
    products in addition to traditional products to reduce dependence on a number of customers and
    contribute to increased income, increased competitiveness (Vu, 2015).

    However, the result of SI variable bearing positive sign in the regression model number (1) is contrary
    to the research group’s expectations (The hypothesis 4 is rejected). Additionally, 92 percent of survey
    participants are preparing to invest in technological innovation and developing sales channels through
    technology; 96 percent of banks are currently formulating a high-tech development strategy by 2025,
    typically 3 banks (VPbank; Tpbank; HSBC) have developed an advanced and automated robot
    development strategy including budget development. Digital banking, big data applications, artificial
    intelligence applications to serve customers in digital banking, cloud computing applications and
    research and application of robotic process automation (RPA) (BSI, May 2017). Besides, many banks
    are still in the first step researching Blockchain platform or have not made any move in improving
    International payment services. This group is small in scale, limited in technology and has not kept up

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    with the world’s development trend. The context will put great pressure on the rest of the group before
    having to restructure operations on the technology application platform of Industry 4.0 to survive (Dao,
    2019).

    In line with expectations, the result of IU variable bearing positive sign in the regression model number
    (2) is perfectly suitable (The hypothesis 5 is totally accepted) since the number and value of domestic
    payment transactions of bank cards continue to increase, in the first quarter of 2019 reached 65 million
    transactions with a total transaction amount of VND 171 trillion. Since the beginning of 2019, Agribank
    has implemented many customer-centric product and service development programs. In 30/10/2019,
    the total Agribank number of payment accounts reached 12 million accounts (Thuy, 2019). It can be
    seen that the application of Blockchain can also be considered a good choice for the development of a
    payment system, especially in the International Payment Service with a distributed ledger platform and
    data management by its consensus mechanism. (Lee, 2015). The summary of all testing results is
    shown as below:

    Table 8
    Conclusion on the determinants of using International Payment service at Commercial Bank applying
    Blockchain in Vietnam (Dependent Variable: IU)
    Independent
    Expected Signal Actual signal Hypothesis Accepted/Rejected
    Variables
    QIPU + + H1 Accepted
    QSQV + + H2 Accepted
    CU + + H3 Accepted
    SI – + H4 Rejected
    IU + + H5 Accepted
    Source: Authors’ compilation from primary data

    5. Conclusions, limitations and recommendations

    5.1. Conclusion

    Regarding the factors that affect the attitude and intention to use technology in Literature review,
    thereby making predictions about the selection of the factors that affect negatively and positively as a
    basis for factors affecting decided to use international payment services of Blockchain application in
    Vietnam. We also give the benefits, limitations and applications of Blockchain technology in the 4.0
    revolution and current situation of the International payment industry applying new technologies in
    foreign countries and in Vietnam. The research team has self-developed a research model with 6
    independent variables, 2 dependent variables, and test and measure their impact on the use of
    International Payment services at Commercial banks applying Blockchain. From the opinions and data
    of the survey, the team found a consensus: The quality of bank’s service is assessed depending on the
    processing speed of payment transactions for customers. Therefore, we have adjusted the QSQV group
    of factors affecting the intention to use international payment services at commercial banks applying
    Blockchain. As the quality of the bank’s information is better, the timely and complete transfer of
    customer transaction information will make the bank’s international payment service more useful. Since
    then, the team adjusted the QIPU factor group affecting the intention to use international payment
    services at commercial banks applying Blockchain. Social influence factors are those that can influence
    customers’ use decisions. Therefore, with a strange technology like Blockchain applied in international
    payment at Vietnamese banks, it is not widely available now.

    5.2. Recommendations

    The research team proposes a number of recommendations and solutions to develop the application of
    Blockchain platform for International payment services at Vietnam Commercial Bank as below:

  14. 452

    5.2.1. Investing more in usefulness of information quality of international payment services

    The usefulness of information quality is a major factor affecting customers’ intention to use this service.
    Therefore, this solution is designed to help international payment services improve the safety, accuracy
    and timeliness through the improvement of information quality, it makes recommendations at banks
    and the Blockchain platform of supplier. For banks, the preferred solution is applied at big, prestigious
    banks such as Vietcombank, BIDV, etc. to take advantage of the large customer base here. In addition,
    suppliers will work with banks to create new international payment services based on Blockchain to
    allow customers to transact more easily. At the same time, under the pressure of technological
    innovation in context 4.0, it is expected that Blockchain platform providers will soon launch many new
    features of this technology platform.

    5.2.2. Promoting social influence by making promotion campaigns for increasing awareness of clients
    on blockchain benefits

    In fact, the number of banks applying Blockchain in international payment services is not popular,
    small-scale and technological systems face many obstacles. In addition, customers are still wondering
    about the safety of international payment services at banks applying Blockchain, and banks are forced
    to change their operating structure on the new technology platform to follow with technology
    development trends. To do this, banks need to provide information and evidence to customers about
    international payments using Blockchain technology to create trust from them. Then, because building
    trust from customers’ needs a long process, the effectiveness of the solution takes more time to evaluate.
    But we believe that if the success of this application will make the transfer of money via Blockchain
    more popular and bring more benefits.

    5.2.3. Improving and enhance the application of blockchains for international payment for utilizing its
    benefits on risks and cost control:

    Currently, customers are mainly focused on the risks, costs and improved utility of international
    payment services instead of the application of Blockchain. Although banks have used technologies
    related to artificial intelligence, but with a new technology, it will make many users feel strange and
    difficult to use. The introduction of this solution makes transactions of international payment services
    easier; it is proposed for banks and is effective when banks apply Blockchain to upgrade their
    international payment services via the internet, websites, apps, etc. Therefore, when customers are
    familiar with the international payment system applying Blockchain, the bank will receive many
    benefits from this solution.

    5.2.4. Establishing a system for managing virtual currency transactions with Blockchain technology

    Cryptocurrencies (virtual currencies) are seen as the next step in the evolution of money, as the use of
    cash diminishes, and new forms of payment become increasingly popular. Currently, transactions
    related to cryptocurrencies are still taking place in Vietnam, despite a series of risks and consequences.
    Although, in April 2018, the Prime Minister issued Directive No.10/CT-TTG on strengthening the
    management of activities related to Bitcoin and other similar virtual currencies. From January 1, 2018,
    acts of issuing, supplying and using improper payment instruments may be examined for penal liability
    under Point h, Clause 1, Article 206 of the 2015 Criminal Code (amended and supplemented in 2017).
    For violations of the regulations on banking activities, other activities related to banking activities,
    which cause damage to other persons on their property from VND 100,000,000 to under VND
    300,000,000, they will be fined from 50,000,000 VND to 300,000,000 VND or imprisonment from 06
    months to 03 years for acts of issuing, supplying and using illegal payment instruments. With
    unregulated operating mechanism, Bitcoin is out of the control of the State Bank when you open a

  15. H.N. Dam et al. /Uncertain Supply Chain Management 8 (2020) 453

    Bitcoin account, you do not need to declare who you are, where you come from, what you do and how
    much your monthly income. So, the tacit transactions that we find difficult to control for the activities
    of money laundering criminals, tax evasion, illegal money transfers, payments, sovereignty grants on
    currency issuance will affect the efficiency of money laundering. As the result of operating monetary
    policy, our country has implemented its own management policies.

    From there, we propose that Blockchain technology should be used to make it easier for the state bank
    as well as the government to control the problem and trade cryptocurrencies. Therefore, the State Bank
    will rely on this basis to cooperate with specialized organizations on Blockchain and Fintech to create
    management software. The effectiveness of this recommendation is very great, but the research group
    realized that the current limitations of Vietnamese IT level was not as advanced as other countries such
    as the US, UK, and so on. Therefore, to implement this option optimally, it needs the cooperation of
    Fintech organizations, and the Government must support it before this proposal can be implemented
    soon.

    5.3. Limitations

    Besides scientific and practical contributions, the study still has certain limitations as below:

    Firstly, the limitations of the survey sampling method are based on the development of sample sizes
    with related subjects such as international students, office workers and pharmaceutical import-export
    enterprise does not guarantee representativeness for the entire market. Secondly, current research is a
    new topic in Vietnam, so reference materials and practical applications for international payment at
    Vietnamese commercial banks are still not much for the research group to refer to, collect and develop
    research papers. Thirdly, the research group conduct a large enterprise survey specializing in import
    and export, so it was difficult to meet and set up a direct interview with a representative of the company.
    In addition, the Covid-19 epidemic also affects the interview process when the interview must be
    conducted over the phone so that the information selection is not as detailed as the direct dialogue.
    Finally, the research is based on practical applications of Blockchain at HSBC and TPbank, so it has
    not been able to mention all the benefits of Blockchain in international payment services. This can be
    considered as a limitation of the research group when choosing a topic that is still very new in the
    Banking and Finance market in Vietnam.

    Therefore, further studies need to be improved and supplemented by using more representative
    investigative methods such as norm sampling, random probability sampling. At the same time, it is
    possible to expand the research area from Vietnam to the world to have a more comprehensive view of
    the benefits that Blockchain brings to commercial banks.

    Acknowledgement

    We sincerely thank Associate Professor. Dr. Tam Thanh Le who gave directions and advice on
    standards of content, knowledge and research methods to complete this research topic.

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