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Investigation of dynamic involved in determination of capital structure of Karur Vysya bank, India

Investigation of dynamic involved in determination of capital structure of Karur Vysya bank, India
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The main objectives this study was investigating the determinants of capital structure of the selected private Bank in India.

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  1. International Journal of Management (IJM)
    Volume 8, Issue 1, January–February 2017, pp.33–39, Article ID: IJM_08_01_005
    Available online at
    http://www.iaeme.com/ijm/issues.asp?JType=IJM&VType=8&IType=1
    Journal Impact Factor (2016): 8.1920 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com
    ISSN Print: 0976-6502 and ISSN Online: 0976-6510
    © IAEME Publication

    INVESTIGATION OF DYNAMIC INVOLVED IN
    DETERMINATION OF CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF
    KARUR VYSYA BANK, INDIA
    Bekele Abraham Diro
    Head, Department of Banking and Finance,
    Aksum University, Aksum, Ethiopia

    ABSTRACT
    An appropriate capital structure is a critical decision for any business organization to be taken
    by business organization for maximization of shareholders wealth and sustained growth. The main
    objectives this study was investigating the determinants of capital structure of the selected private
    Bank in India. Thus, the major focus of this study was to investigate empirically firm specific factors
    such as, Size, Tangibility, Profitability, Dividend Payout Ratio, Taxation, and Risk. In this study, only
    secondary data was used. The data collected from the annual report published by the Bank.
    Key words: Capital Structure, Banking Sector, Determinants, Leverage and Profitability
    Cite this Article: Bekele Abraham Diro, Investigation of Dynamic Involved In Determination of
    Capital Structure of Karur Vysya Bank, India, International Journal of Management, 8(1), 2017, pp.
    33–39.
    http://www.iaeme.com/ijm/issues.asp?JType=IJM&VType=8&IType=1

    1. INTRODUCTION
    Capital composition matters to most firms in free markets, but there are differences. Companies in non-
    financial industries need capital mainly to support funding such as to buy property and to build or acquire
    production facilities and equipment to pursue new areas of business. While this is also true for banks, their
    main focus is somewhat different. By its very nature, banking is an attempt to manage multiple and
    seemingly opposing needs. Banks provide liquidity on demand to depositors through the current account and
    extend credit as well as liquidity to their borrowers through lines of credit. Owing to these fundamental roles,
    banks have always been concerned with both solvency and liquidity. Given the central role of market and
    credit risk in their core business, the success of banks depend on their ability to identify, assess, monitor and
    manage these risks in a sound and sophisticated way. Competitive and regulatory pressures are likely to
    reinforce the central strategic issue of capital and profitability and cost of equity capital in shaping banking
    strategy.
    In order to assess and manage risks, banks must have effective ways of determining the appropriate
    amount of capital that is necessary to absorb unexpected losses arising from their market, credit and
    operational risk exposures. In addition to this, profits that arise from various business activities of the banks
    need to be evaluated relative to the capital necessary to cover the associated risks. These two major links to

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  2. Bekele Abraham Diro

    capital – risk as a basis to determine capital and the measurement of profitability against risk-based capital
    allocations – explain the critical role of capital as a key component in the management of bank portfolios.
    The capital structure of banks is, however, still a relatively under-explored area in the banking literature.
    Currently, there is no clear understanding on how banks choose their capital structure and what factors
    influence their corporate financing behavior. Mostly lending in large banks is less subject to changes in cash
    flow and capital. It also identified that shifts in deposit supply affect lending at small banks that do not have
    access to the large internal capital market.
    The fact is that large banks tend to decrease their capital and increase their lending after mergers. Bank
    size seems to allow banks to operate with less capital and, at the same time, engage in more lending. Majority
    of the assets of listed firms in India are financed by debt and that there is a correlation between debt ratio
    and firm size, growth, asset tangibility, risk, and corporate tax. Given the unique financial features of banks
    and the environment in which they operate, there are strong grounds for a separate study on capital structure
    determinants of banks.

    2. OVERVIEW OF BANK IN INDIA
    As per the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), India’s banking sector is sufficiently capitalised and well-regulated.
    The financial and economic conditions in the country are far superior to any other country in the world.
    Credit, market and liquidity risk studies suggest that Indian banks are generally resilient and have withstood
    the global downturn well. Indian banking industry has recently witnessed the roll out of innovative banking
    models like payments and small finance banks. The central bank granted in-principle approval to 11
    payments banks and 10 small finance banks in FY 2015-16. RBI’s new measures may go a long way in
    helping the restructuring of the domestic banking industry.
    The Indian banking system consists of 26 public sector banks, 25 private sector banks, 43 foreign banks,
    56 regional rural banks, 1,589 urban cooperative banks and 93,550 rural cooperative banks, in addition to
    cooperative credit institutions. Public-sector banks control nearly 80 percent of the market, thereby leaving
    comparatively much smaller shares for its private peers. Banks are also encouraging their customers to
    manage their finances using mobile phones

    3. THEORIES ON CAPITAL STRUCTURE
    The theoretical principles underlying the capital structure, financing and lending choices of firms can be
    described either in terms of a static trade-off choice or pecking order framework. The static trade-off choice
    encompasses several aspects, including the exposure of the firm to bankruptcy and agency cost against tax
    benefits associated with debt use.
    Bankruptcy cost is a cost directly incurred when the perceived probability that the firm will default on
    financing is greater than zero. One of the bankruptcy costs is liquidation costs, which represents the loss of
    value as a result of liquidating the net assets of the firm. This liquidation cost reduces the proceeds to the
    lender, should the firm default on finance payments and become insolvent. Given the reduced proceeds,
    financiers will adjust their cost of finance to firms in order to incorporate this potential loss of value. Firms
    will, therefore, incur higher finance costs due to the potential liquidation costs (Cassar and Holmes, 2003).
    Another cost that is associated with the bankruptcy cost is distress cost. This is the cost a firm incurs if
    non-lending stakeholders believe that the firm will discontinue. If a business is perceived to be close to
    bankruptcy, customers may be less willing to buy goods and services due to the risk of a firm not being able
    to meet its warranty obligations. In addition, employees might be less inclined to work for the business and
    suppliers less likely to extend trade credit. These stakeholders’ behaviour effectively reduces the value of
    the firm.
    Therefore, firms which have high distress cost would have incentives to decrease debt financing so as to
    lower these costs. Given these bankruptcy costs, the operating risk of the firm would also influence the
    capital structure choice of the firm because firms which have higher operating risk would be exposed to

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  3. Investigation of Dynamic Involved In Determination of Capital Structure of Karur Vysya Bank, India

    higher bankruptcy costs, making cost of debt financing greater for higher risk firms. Research has found that
    high growth firms often display similar financial and operating profiles (Hutchinson and Mengersen, 1989).
    Debt financing may also lead to agency costs. Agency costs are the costs that arise as a result of a
    principal-stakeholder relationship, such as the relationship between equity-holders or managers of the firm
    and debt holders. Myers and Majluf (1984) showed that, given the incentive for the firm to benefit equity-
    holders at the expense of debt holders, debt-holders need to restrict and monitor the firm’s behaviour. These
    contracting behaviours increase the cost of capital offered to the firm. Thus, firms with relatively higher
    agency costs due to the inherent conflict between the firm and the debt-holders should have lower levels of
    outside debt financing and leverage.
    Firms also consider within the static trade-off framework, the tax benefits associated with the use of debt.
    This benefit is created as the interest payments associated with debt are tax deductible while payments
    associated with equity such as dividends are appropriated from profit. This tax effect encourages the use of
    debt by firms as more debt increases the after-tax proceeds to the owner. The theory among other things
    predicts a positive relationship between tax and leverage.
    The pecking order theory suggests that firms have a particular preference order for capital used to finance
    their businesses (Myers, 1984). Owing to the presence of information asymmetries between the firm and
    potential financiers, the relative costs of finance vary between the financing choices. Where the funds
    provider is the firm’s retained earnings, meaning more information than new equity holders, the new equity
    holders will expect a higher rate of return on capital invested resulting in the new equity finance being more
    costly to the firm than using existing internal funds.
    A similar argument can be provided between the retained earning and new debt-holders. In addition, the
    greater the exposure to the risk associated with the information asymmetries for the various financing choices
    besides retained earnings, the higher the return of capital demanded by each source. Thus, the firm will prefer
    retained earnings financing to debt, short-term debt over long-term debt and debt over equity.

    4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF BANK CAPITAL STRUCTURE
    DETERMINANTS
    1. Profitability
    Corporate performance has been identified as a potential determinant of capital structure. The tax trade-off
    models show that profitable firms will employ more debt since they are more likely to have a high tax burden
    and low bankruptcy risk (Ooi, 1999). However, Myers (1984) prescribes a negative relationship between
    debt and profitability on the basis that successful companies do not need to depend so much on external
    funding. They, instead, rely on their internal reserves accumulated from past profits. Titman and Wessels
    (1988) and Barton (1989), agree that firms with high profit rates, all things being equal, would maintain
    relatively lower debt ratio since they are able to generate such funds from internal sources. Empirical
    evidence from previous studies (Chittenden 1996; Coleman and Cole, 1999; Al-Sakran, 2001) appears to be
    consistent with the pecking order theory. Most studies found a negative relationship between profitability
    and debt financing.

    2. Growth Rate
    Applying pecking order arguments, growing firms place a greater demand on their internally generated
    funds. Consequentially, firms with high growth will tend to look to external funds to finance the growth.
    Firms would, therefore, look to short-term, less secured debt then to longer-term more secured debt for their
    financing needs. Myers (1977) confirms this and concludes that firms with a higher proportion of their
    market value accounted for by growth opportunity will have debt capacity.
    Auerbach (1985) also argues that leverage is inversely related to growth rate because the tax deductibility
    of interest payments is less valuable to fast growing firms since they usually have non-debt tax shields.

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  4. Bekele Abraham Diro

    Michaelas (1999) found future growth positively related to leverage and long-term debt, while Chittenden
    (1996) and Jordan (1998) found mixed evidence

    3. Tax Charge
    Different authors on capital structure have given different interpretations of the impact of taxation on
    corporate financing decisions in the major industrial countries. Some are concerned directly with tax policy.
    For instance Auerbach (1985), MacKie-Mason (1990), etc. studied the tax impact on corporate financing
    decisions. The studies provided evidence of substantial tax effect on the choice between debt and equity.
    They concluded that changes in the marginal tax rate for any firm should affect financing decisions. A firm
    with a high tax shield is less likely to finance with debt.
    The reason is that tax shields lower the effective marginal tax rate on interest deduction. Graham (1996)
    on his part concluded that, in general, taxes do affect corporate financial decisions, but the extent of the
    effect is mostly not significant.
    Ashton (1991) confirms that any tax advantage to debt is likely to be small and thus have a weak
    relationship between debt usage and tax burden of firms. De Angelo and Masulis (1980) on the other hand,
    show that depreciation, research and development expenses, investment deductions, etc. could be substitutes
    for the fiscal role of debt. Titman and Wessels (1988) provided that, empirically, the substitution effect has
    been difficult to measure as finding an accurate proxy for tax reduction that excludes the effect of economic
    depreciation and expenses is tedious.

    4. Dividend Payout
    The bankruptcy costs theory pleads for adverse relation between the dividend payout ratio and debt level in
    capital structure. The low dividend payout ratio means increase in the equity base for debt capital and low
    probability of going into liquidation. As a result of low probability of bankruptcy, the bankruptcy cost is
    low. According to the bankruptcy cost theory, the low bankruptcy cost implies the high level of debt in the
    capital structure. But the pecking order theory shows the positive relation between debt level and dividend
    payout ratio Titman and Wessels (1988). According to this theory, management prefers the internal financing
    to external one. Instead of distributing the high dividend, and meeting the financial need from debt capital,
    management retains the earnings. Hence, the lower dividend payout ratio means the lower level of debt in
    capital structure

    5. Business Risk
    Given agency and bankruptcy costs, there are incentives for the firm not to utilize the tax benefit of debt
    within the static framework model. As a firm is exposed to such costs, the greater its incentive to reduce its
    level of debt within its capital structure. One firm variable which impacts upon this exposure is firm operating
    risk, in that the more volatile a firm’s earnings streams, the greater the chance of the firm defaulting and
    being exposed to such costs. Firms with relatively higher operating risk will have incentives to have lower
    leverage than more stable earnings firms. Empirical evidence suggests that there is a negative relationship
    between risk and leverage of small firms (Ooi, 1999; Titman and Wessels, 1988).

    6. Size
    Size plays an important role in determining the capital structure of a firm. Researchers have taken the view
    that large firms are less susceptible to bankruptcy because they tend to be more diversified than smaller
    companies (Smith and Warner, 1979; Ang and McConnel, 1982). Following the trade-off models of capital
    structure, large firms should accordingly employ more debt than smaller firms. According to Berryman
    (1982), lending to small businesses is riskier because of the strong negative correlation between the firm size
    and the probability of insolvency. Hall (1995) added that, this could partly be due to the limited portfolio
    management skills and partly due to the attitude of lenders. Marsh (1982) and Titman and Wessels (1988)
    report a contrary negative relationship between debt ratios and firm size. Marsh (1982) argues that small

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  5. Investigation of Dynamic Involved In Determination of Capital Structure of Karur Vysya Bank, India

    companies, due to their limited access to equity capital market tend to rely heavily on loans for their funding
    requirements. Titman and Wessels (1988) further posit that small firms rely less on equity issue because they
    face a higher per unit issue cost.

    7. Tangibility
    Due to the conflict of interest between debt providers and shareholders (Jensen and Mekling, 1976), lenders
    face risk of adverse selection and moral hazard. Consequently, lenders may demand security, and collateral
    value (proxied by the ratio of fixed to total assets) may be a major determinant of the level of debt finance
    available to companies (Scott (1977), Stiglitz and Weiss (1981), Williamson (1988) and Harris and Raviv
    (1990)). The degree to which firms’ assets are tangible and generic should result in the firm having a greater
    liquidation value. Capital intensive companies will relatively employ more debt (Myers, 1977), as pledging
    the assets as collateral (Myers, 1977; Harris and Raviv, 1991) or arranging so that a fix charge is directly
    placed to particular tangible assets of the firm. Bank financing will depend upon whether the lending can be
    secured by tangible assets (Storey, 1994; Berger and Udell, 1998).

    5. METHODOLOGY
    The study examines the determinants of capital structure of Karur Vysya Bank (KVB), Tamilnadu, India.
    The Bank carries with it tradition of 99 years and yet is young enough to adopt itself to the rapidly changing
    scenario in the Banking industry. Karur Vysya Bank was started in the year 1916 in Karur, then a small
    textile town with a vast agricultural background, by two illustrious sons of the soil – Sri M.A. Venkatarama
    Chettiar and Sri Athi Krishna Chettiar. What started as a venture with a seed capital of Rs. 1.00 lakh has
    grown into a leading financial institution that offers a gamut of financial services to millions of its customers
    under one roof. The data was collected from Karur Vysya Bank. The proposed period was from 2006-07 to
    2015-16. The study considered Size (natural log of Total Asset), Tangibility, Profitability, Dividend payout,
    Taxation and Risk as Dependent Variables and Leverage as Independent Variable.

    MODELING KVB BANK LEVERAGE BASED ON SIZE, TANGIBILITY,
    PROFITABILITY, DIVIDEND PAYOUT, TAXATION, RISK

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  6. Bekele Abraham Diro

    Model Output: Results and Discussion
    Explanatory Variable Coefficient R2 t-Statistics Prob
    Size 0.286 0.082 Above 1.96 0.05
    Tangibility -0.482 0.232 Above 1.96 0.05
    Profitability 0.188 0.035 Above 1.96 0.05
    Dividend Payout Ratio -0.203 0.041 Above 1.96 0.05
    Taxation 0.126 0.016 Above 1.96 0.05
    Risk -0.078 0.006 Above 1.96 0.05
    Size with a coefficient of 0.286 is also significant at 0.05% as well as exhibiting a positive relationship
    with Bank Leverage ratio thereby supporting the findings of Remmers (1974) on the basis of the Bankruptcy
    Cost Theory that large firms are more diversified and as such, have easy access to the capital market, receive
    higher credit ratings for debt issues, and pay lower interest rate on debt capital hence they are less prone to
    bankruptcy.
    Tangibility shows a negative coefficient -0.482, also significant at 0.05%. For Tangibility, this is
    expected as supported by the findings of Hutchinson and Hunter (1995) that Tangible assets by impacting
    on financial leverage augments risk through the increase of operating leverage
    Profitability shows a positive coefficient 0.188 and significant at 0.05%. This result supports with Barton
    (1989), agree that firms with high profit rates, all things being equal, would maintain relatively lower debt
    ratio since they are able to generate such funds from internal sources.
    Dividend Payout with a coefficient given at -0.203 is statistically significant at 1% and negatively related
    to Leverage. The result shows that banks management does not prefers the internal sources of financing to
    external one but only have to resort to external financing when there is the need for expansion as such, lower
    dividend payout ratio means the lower level of debt in capital structure.
    Taxation shows a positive coefficient 0.126 and significant at 0.05%. Firms also consider within the
    static trade-off framework, the tax benefits associated with the use of debt. This benefit is created as the
    interest payments associated with debt are tax deductible while payments associated with equity such as
    dividends are appropriated from profit. This tax effect encourages the use of debt by firms as more debt
    increases the after-tax proceeds to the owner.
    Risk shows a negative coefficient -0.078, also significant at 0.05%. As for Risk, findings find support
    in the agency and bankruptcy cost theories which suggests that the greater the chance of a business failure,
    the greater will be the weight of bankruptcy costs on enterprise financing decisions and as the probability of
    bankruptcy increases, the agency problems related to debt become more aggravating (Taggart 1985). The
    finding shows that Banks leverage is positive with Size, Profitability and Taxation. At the same time Bank
    leverage is negative with Tangibility, Dividend Payout Ratio, and Risk.

    6. CONCLUSION
    In conclusion, the empirical evidence from this study suggests that profitability, corporate tax, and bank size
    are important variables that influence banks’ capital structure of KVB Bank, India. These results are
    consistent with the theories developed in finance to explain capital structure within the firm, including static
    trade-off arguments utilizing bankruptcy, agency and tax costs and pecking order arguments. However, there
    is no support of banks’ risk influencing the level of leverage of banks.

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  7. Investigation of Dynamic Involved In Determination of Capital Structure of Karur Vysya Bank, India

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