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Effect of training and development programmes on self-efficacy of banking professionals in Chennai city
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The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of training on self-efficacy of the bank employees working in selected banks in Chennai.

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  1. International Journal of Management (IJM)
    Volume 8, Issue 5, Sep–Oct 2017, pp.31–43, Article ID: IJM_08_05_004
    Available online at
    http://www.iaeme.com/ijm/issues.asp?JType=IJM&VType=8&IType=5
    Journal Impact Factor (2016): 8.1920 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com
    ISSN Print: 0976-6502 and ISSN Online: 0976-6510
    © IAEME Publication

    EFFECT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
    PROGRAMMES ON SELF-EFFICACY OF
    BANKING PROFESSIONALS IN CHENNAI CITY
    D. Mohanraj
    Research Scholar, Department of Management Studies,
    Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India

    Dr. N. Panchanatham
    Research Supervisor, Department of Business Administration,
    Professor, Annamalai University, Chidambarm. Tamil Nadu, India

    ABSTRACT
    Training is the process of teaching the new and/or present employees the basic
    skills they need to effectively perform their jobs. Alternatively speaking, training is the
    act of accumulating the skill and knowledge of an employee for doing a particular job.
    In short, the term ‘training’ indicates the process involved in improving the aptitudes,
    skills and abilities of the employees to perform specific jobs. Henceforth, training
    denotes to the teaching and learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of
    helping members of an organization to acquire and also to apply the required
    knowledge, skill and attitudes to perform their jobs effectively. On the other hand,
    Self-efficacy refers to one’s belief in one’s ability to succeed in specific situations or
    accomplish a task. One’s sense of self-efficacy can play a major role in how one
    approaches goals, tasks, and challenges. The purpose of this paper is to explore the
    effect of training on self-efficacy of the bank employees working in selected banks in
    Chennai. The survey was conducted among 150 bank employees (i.e. 30 employees
    from each bank) from five different selected private banks such as HDFC bank, Yes
    bank, Kotak Mahindra bank, Karur Vysya Bank, and RBL bank located at Chennai.
    The results of the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) proved that the training has
    the effect on perception of self-efficacy of the bank employees working in Chennai.
    Key words: effect of training, self-efficacy, banking industry, SEM.
    Cite this Article: D. Mohanraj and Dr. N. Panchanatham, Effect of Training and
    Development Programmes on Self-Efficacy of Banking Professionals in Chennai City.
    International Journal of Management, 8 (5), 2017, pp. 31–43.
    http://www.iaeme.com/IJM/issues.asp?JType=IJM&VType=8&IType=5

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  2. D. Mohanraj and Dr. N. Panchanatham

    1. INTRODUCTION
    Training and Development programmes plays a critical role in shaping available man power
    for present and future needs of the organization. It is the part of human resource development
    in the organization. The various kinds of training and development programmes are available
    to cater the need of the employees and the organization. In general, the training programmes
    are customized to impart knowledge transfer with respect to particular job or technology
    upgradation of individuals (Nalinidevi and Panchanatham, 2011). The banking industry in
    India has met tremendous changes in few decades from paper work environment into digital
    environment, it offers variety of services through digital environment. Hence, the banking
    professionals need regular training and development programmes in order to keep in pace
    with technology changes in the banking industry. The banking services were also extended
    from the urban areas to nook and corner of rural areas, by increasing its manpower, and hence
    the leadership and team building development programmes are provided by the banks to their
    employees. The earlier researches explored that the numerous factors affects the training
    transfer. It is also discovered that training programmes improves the self-efficacy of the
    employees (Blume et al., 2010; Baldwin et al., 2009). Self-management training will also
    improve the self-efficacy of the individuals (Parisa Mansouri et al., 2017). Ali Mohammad
    Naemi and Amin Naemi (2017) stated that smart training has the impact on self-efficacy and
    self-regulation of the individuals, whereas the self-efficacy has the impact on career
    development and career success of the employees (Ahmad Tisman Pasha, 2017), which
    means Self-efficacy effects trainee‟s learning and their succeeding performance (Salas and
    Bowers, 2001). This is because Self-efficacy influences the goals that employees choose for
    themselves, and it influences the persistence with which employees attempt new and difficult
    tasks (Bandura, 1995). Furthermore, earlier researches evident that self-efficacy explains the
    positive effects of training on work attitudes, attendance, and performance. The primary aim
    of this study is to discover the effect of training and development programmes on self-
    efficacy of banking professionals in Chennai city.

    2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
    2.1. Effect of Training
    The effect of training or evaluation of training can be assessed through Donald Kirkpatrick
    assessment model. This model has five phases, such as Reaction, Learning, Behaviour,
    Results and Return on Investment and it is illustrated in Figure 1. However, in this research
    only four phases have been taken by the researcher for the study.

    ROI

    Results

    Behaviour

    Learning

    Reaction

    Figure 1 Kirkpatrick‟s Training Assessment Model

    The first level of Kirkpatrick model is Reaction level, which emphasizes on the banking
    employees‟ perceptions towards the training and development programmes they have

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  3. Effect of Training and Development Programmes on Self-Efficacy of Banking Professionals in
    Chennai City

    attended. Here researcher wants to unearth the benefits of training, does the objective of the
    training was achieved and collect information on how the employee‟s felt about the training
    they received. A positive reaction indicates that employees are happy and satisfied with
    regards to the training given by their bank and more likely to use the skills and knowledge in
    the assigned task or job.
    The second level is learning which indicates the acquirement of knowledge, behavioral
    change, skills and attitudes of the bank employees through the training transfer. The purpose
    is to assess the level of learning from the training program offered by the banks.
    The third level refers to Behavioral changes and performance of the employees due to
    knowledge, skills and attitudes learned during the training programmes. If learning does not
    transfer to the job, then it cannot have any impact to the job and organization.
    The fourth level is Results, which implies the effect of training on the business or
    environment resulting from the improved performance of the employee. This level seeks to
    determine whether the learning impacted the business such as by providing more profit, high
    sales and reducing numbers of customer complaints. (Ganesan et al, 2010).
    The fifth level is Return on Investment (ROI), which compares the investment made by
    the banks for the development of employees and the direct and indirect benefits received as
    training outcomes.

    2.2. Self-Efficacy
    Self-efficacy defined as person belief on their own capabilities to organize and execute
    towards the action needed to manage prospective situations Bandura (1995). Evidence from
    past research has shown that self-efficacy has a strong relation between learning and
    motivation (Pajares, 2002; Zumrah, 2013). Colquitt et al. (2000), state that Self-efficacy has a
    direct impact with training motivation hence (Tai, 2006) state that if trainee’s have a strong
    determination to learn the skills and knowledge, it reflect the successful of training program.
    Self-efficacy, also referred as personal efficacy, is confidence in one’s own ability to
    achieve intended results. Psychologists have studied self-efficacy from several perspectives,
    noting various paths in the development of self-efficacy; the dynamics of self-efficacy, and
    lack thereof, in many different settings; interactions between self-efficacy and self-concept;
    and habits of attribution that contribute to, or detract from, Self-efficacy.
    Self-efficacy affects every area of human endeavor. By determining the beliefs a person
    holds regarding his or her power to affect situations, it strongly influences both the power a
    person actually has to face challenges competently and the choices a person is most likely to
    make. These effects are particularly apparent, and compelling, with regard to behaviors
    affecting health. The training may also improve the creativity and innovation of the
    employees (Priya et al., 2011).

    3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
    Jeeven Jyoti and Manisha Dev (2017), in their article explored the role of Self-efficacy
    between high-performance work system (HPWS) and learning orientation. The model has
    been tested in the service sector (banking sector). The data obtained have been duly validated
    with the help of confirmatory factor analysis. The results indicate that Self-efficacy moderates
    the relationship between the HPWS and learning orientation. In addition, learning orientation
    mediates the relationship between the HPWS and employee performance relationship. The
    results further reveal that the learning orientation mediates the interaction effect of HPWS and

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  4. D. Mohanraj and Dr. N. Panchanatham

    self-efficacy on employee performance (moderated mediation). Finally, the managerial
    implications, limitations and scope for future research have been discussed.
    Saman Attiq et al (2017), in their study examined the relationship among management and
    peer support, trust, self-efficacy, organizational learning, and organizational effectiveness.
    Within organization, supportive work environment plays a significant role in the
    establishment of employees‟ learning process. Data is collected from employees of 400 banks
    located at twin cities i.e. Islamabad and Rawalpindi through self-administered questionnaire.
    Finding indicates that top-management and co-worker support (i.e. stimulus) had significant
    positive impact on employee‟s trust and self-efficacy (i.e. organism) and organism acts as
    mediator between stimulus and response. Bank managers, industry associations, training
    providers, and research institutions may use findings to bring improvements in organizational
    learning mechanisms and employee behaviors to enhance the overall effectiveness of the
    organizations.
    Prasad (2016), the main objective of his study to know the profile of retail employees
    requires training for the improvement of their skills and give emphasis on the impact of
    training program on four categories of retail employees and finally the relationship of training
    program with their goal achievements. Data have been collected through quota sampling unit
    from newly appointed employees and old employees especially from Reliance Retail,
    Shoppers Stop, Big Bazaar, Pantaloon the biggest retailers in India. The four kinds of
    employees having similar kind of function considered to know the impact on their four key
    areas after training. All the three categories of employees‟ retail warehouse workers, retail
    sales clerk and retail stocker has great impact on training in business focus, critical thinking,
    personal effectiveness and relationship management but retail merchandisers have little
    impact.
    Seyyedrasooli et al (2015), in their study aimed to compare the effects of individual and
    group training methods on self-efficacy in foot care among the patients with DM. In this
    single-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial, we enrolled 150 patients with type 1 and 2
    DM. A research assistant collected the data by interviewing the participants using the
    questionnaire once before and once one month after the intervention. The participants of the
    intervention groups attended a training program consisting of three sessions per week for one
    week. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the three groups
    regarding the mean of self-efficacy scores before foot-care training intervention (P=0.39).
    But, comparison of the scores before and after the intervention showed that both group and
    individual training interventions increased the patients‟ self-efficacy (P≤0/05).
    Giran et al (2014), in their study aimed to examine the in-depth factors that improve
    employees‟ motivation in training program. The critical variable was discussed on training
    motivation. Random sampling Method used to gather the data from 120 employees at a single
    point of Kolej Poly-Tech MARA Kuantan. Regression analysis was used for estimating the
    relationship among variables. The result shows that self-efficacy has a moderate relationship
    on training motivation. Since data are based on self-reports, common method bias may affect
    the relationship among the variables. The study only focuses at KPTM Kuantan that was not
    involved other branches. The paper contributes to both research and practice by providing
    support to the department heads and the management on ways to increase training motivation
    among employees.
    Amir Elnaga and Amen Imran (2013), in their conceptual paper aimed at studying the
    effect of training on employee performance and to provide suggestion as to how firm can
    improve its employee performance through effective training programs. Further the paper

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  5. Effect of Training and Development Programmes on Self-Efficacy of Banking Professionals in
    Chennai City

    goes on to analyse and understand the theoretical framework and models related to employee
    development through training and development programs, and its effect on employee
    performance and on the basis of the review of the current evidence of such a relationship,
    offers suggestions for the top management in form of a checklist, appropriate for all
    businesses, to assess the employee performance and to find out the true cause(s) of the
    performance problem so the problem could be solved in time through desired training
    program.
    Jacob Cherian and Jolly Jacob (2013), the aim of their study is to perform a meta-analysis
    which analyses the individual research findings which pertain to the relationship between self-
    efficacy, employee motivation and work related performance of the employee. From the
    results of the study it is observed that self-efficacy theory can be applied for work related
    performance in terms of motivating different employee related facets as well as organizational
    pursuits. In this study the researcher has attempted to assess the influence of self-efficacy on
    the performance of individuals at workplace and the mechanism by which self-efficacy of an
    individual determines his/her work related performance and motivation.
    Farhan Akhtar et al (2011), in their research determined the impact of this training and
    development on motivation and job involvement along with what training methods are widely
    used in the banking sector of Pakistan. The primary data for this study was collected through
    a structured questionnaire that was tailored with the help of literature. Survey was carried out
    on public and private banks of Pakistan (Punjab region). They found that training and
    development has a positive association with both motivation and job involvement of the
    employees of banks in Pakistan. Moreover, job instructional training and informal learning
    are widely used techniques to impart the knowledge towards the employees in banking sector.
    These findings suggest that by boosting the training and development activities within the
    banking sector the employees could be motivated and get attached with their work.
    Wei Tao Tai (2006), the purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of training
    framing from supervisors on trainee self-efficacy and training motivation, and further test how
    these variables subsequently influence overall training effectiveness. Finally, the trainees’
    learning performances were obtained from the test held at the end of the training program.
    Confirms the importance of supervisors training framing- which predicts the self-efficacy and
    training motivation of trainee subsequently affects their reactions, learning and transfer
    motivation.
    Torkzadeh and Pvan Dyke (2002), this article reports on the effects of training on Internet
    self-efficacy and computer user attitudes. Using a 17-item Internet self-efficacy scale and a
    20-item computer user attitude scale in a sample of 189, the relationship between training and
    computer user attitude and Internet self-efficacy is examined. Results suggest that training
    significantly improved Internet self-efficacy for males and females. Respondents with „high‟
    and „low‟ attitude toward computers seem to equally benefit from training programs.
    However, respondents with „high‟ attitude toward computers had higher self-efficacy scores
    than respondents with „low‟ attitude toward computers. Training programs did not seem to
    influence attitudes toward computer usage for males or females. Implications of these findings
    are discussed and further research opportunities described.
    Gist et al (1989), another training devices on self-efficacy and mastery of a computer
    software program were compared in the framework of an arena experiment concerning 108
    university managers. A behavioural modelling approach relative to a tutorial approach yielded
    higher self-efficacy scores and higher performance on an objective measure of computer
    software mastery. Participants scoring high in self-efficacy performed significantly better than

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  6. D. Mohanraj and Dr. N. Panchanatham

    participants with low computer self-efficacy scores. Participants low in self-efficacy reported
    greater confidence in their ability to master the software training in the modelling compared
    with the tutorial conditions. Participants in the modelling training reported more effective
    cognitive working styles, more ease with the task, more satisfaction with training, and less
    frustration compared with participants in tutorial training. Implications for training
    interventions are discussed.

    4. METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK
    Descriptive research is followed in this research. This research attempted to explore the effect
    of training on improvement of self-efficacy of the selected bank employees from Chennai.
    The survey method was adopted to gather primary data. The self-developed questionnaire was
    used as a data collection instrument in this study. This survey instrument has two main scales
    namely effect of training scale and Self-efficacy scale. The effect of training scale was
    developed based on Kirkpatrick assessment model, which has four sub-constructs (20 items),
    whereas the Self-efficacy scale was developed based on General Self-efficacy scale developed
    by Schwarzer and Jerusalem (1995) which has 10 items. The survey was conducted among
    150 bank employees (i.e. 30 employees from each bank) from five different selected private
    banks such as HDFC bank, Yes bank, Kotak Mahindra bank, Karur Vysya Bank, and RBL
    bank located at Chennai. The above-mentioned banks were ranked under Top Ten Best Banks
    positions by Business Today magazine survey in 2016. The employees working in Chennai
    branches and have attended the team building and leadership training programmes in the last
    six months from the selected banks were chosen as samples, and survey was conducted
    among them. The scales developed in the questionnaire was verified for its reliability and
    validity and was tabulated in the table 1.

    Table 1 Scale Reliability and KMO Sample Adequacy test Results
    Sl. No Scales No. of items Cronbach Alpha KMO Bartlett’s Results
    1 Reaction 5 0.762 0.771 0.000 Acceptable
    2 Learning 5 0.831 0.819 0.000 Good
    3 Behaviour 5 0.919 0.943 0.000 Excellent
    4 Results 5 0.826 0.836 0.000 Good
    5 Self-Efficacy 10 0.867 0.845 0.000 Good

    From the above mentioned table: no: 1which represent the scale reliability and KMO
    sample adequacy test outcomes. From the table 1, it is concluded that all the scales selected
    for the measurement is having adequate reliability and sample size is also originate to be
    adequate.

    Table 2 Convergent Validity and Discriminant Validity
    S. No Indices Value Suggested value Interpretation
    1 Construct Reliability / 0.83 CR > 0.7 (Nunnally, 1978) Good
    Composite Reliability (CR) and CR > AVE
    2 Average Variance Extracted 0.62 AVE > 0.5 Good
    (AVE) (Fornell and Larker, 1981)
    3 Maximum Shared 0.69 MSV > AVE Good
    Variance (MSV) (Hair et al, 2010)
    4 Average Shared Squared 0.65 ASV > AVE Good
    Variance (ASV) (Hair et al, 2010)

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  7. Effect of Training and Development Programmes on Self-Efficacy of Banking Professionals in
    Chennai City

    Table 2 which represents the convergent and discriminant validity of the data collection
    instrument scales which also ensures the presence of convergent and discriminant validity.

    Figure 2 Conceptual Model

    Figure 2 indicates the conceptual model which tests the Effect of training on Self-efficacy
    of the bank employees.
    Each every path which links the constructs and variables signifies the association to be
    verified using the hyposthesis testing, henceforth the following alternative hypothesis can be
    framed based on development of the conceptual model:
    H1: There is a significant relationship among Reaction and Effect of training conducted by
    the bank.
    H2: There is a significant relationship among Learning and Effect of training conducted by
    the bank.
    H3: There is a significant association among Behaviour and Effect of training conducted by
    the bank.
    H4: There is a significant association among Results and Effect of training conducted by the
    bank..
    H5: There is a significant association among Effect of training and Self-efficacy of the
    banking professionals.
    f (ET)= f (Reaction) + f (Learning) + f (Behaviour) + f (Results) (1)
    f (SE) = f (SE1) + f (SE2) + f (SE3) + f (SE4) + f (SE5) + f (SE6) + f (SE7) + f (SE8) + f
    (SE9) + f (SE10) (2)
    Where, ET denotes Effect of Training, SE refers to Self-efficacy, SE1, SE2, SE3 refers to
    variables of Self-efficacy.

    5. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
    Descriptive statistics are a set of brief descriptive coefficients that encapsulates a specified
    data set, which can either be a representation of the entire population or a sample. The

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  8. D. Mohanraj and Dr. N. Panchanatham

    measures used to describe the data set are Measures of Central tendency and Measures of
    Variability or Dispersion.

    Table 3 Demographic profile of the respondents
    S. No Particulars Frequency Per cent
    1 Gender
    Male 89 59.3
    Female 61 40.7
    2 Age Group
    Up to 25 Years 39 26.0
    25 – 30 Years 63 42.0
    More than 30 Years 48 32.0
    3 Designation
    Middle level Executives / Accountant/ Clerks 46 30.7
    Junior executives/ Accountant / Clerks 104 69.3
    4 Experience in the Bank
    Less than 3 Years 73 48.7
    3 – 5 Years 48 32.0
    Above 5 Years 29 19.3
    Total 150 100

    Table 3 summarizes the demographic summary of the respondents, from which it is
    concluded that majority (59.3%) of the respondents are male and rest (40.7%) were female. It
    is also acknowledged that 42% of the respondents are form the age group of 25- 30 years,
    whereas 26% of the respondents were up to the age group of 25 years, and remaining are
    above the age group 30 years. Majority (69.3%) of the respondents were belongs to the
    designation of junior level and remaining (30.7%) of them were come under the category of
    middle level executives / accountant/ clerks. With regards to experience of the employee in
    the selected banks 48.7% of them have less than 3 years of experience, whereas 32% of them
    have 3- 5 years of experience and rest of them have above 5 Years of experience in the banks
    at Chennai.

    Table 4 Descriptive Statistics
    Std.
    Scale N Range Minimum Maximum Mean Variance Skewness Kurtosis
    Deviation
    Learning 150 20.00 5.00 25.00 18.20 4.101 16.823 -0.845 0.198 0.920 0.394
    Behaviour 150 20.00 5.00 25.00 19.13 3.719 13.834 -0.722 0.198 0.837 0.394
    Results 150 20.00 5.00 25.00 18.91 4.681 21.919 -0.586 0.198 -0.011 0.394
    Effect of
    150 74.00 26.00 100.00 75.16 12.375 153.142 -0.434 0.198 0.880 0.394
    Training
    Self-Efficacy 150 37.00 13.00 50.00 39.13 6.667 44.452 -1.165 0.198 1.807 0.394

    The table 4 describes the descriptive statistics of the chosen constructs, which includes
    number of variables in each construct, Sample size, Minimum, Maximum value, Mean and
    Standard Deviation. The mean value more than 15.0 represents that the bank employees were
    satisfied with that particular construct, if it is more than 20.0 it shows that they were very
    much satisfied with that particular construct, Hence, from the above table it is inferred that the
    employees were just satisfied with the various dimensions of effect of training adopted by the
    banks in Chennai and they were also perceived moderate self-efficacy because of the training
    they have received. The standard deviation represents the dispersion of the frequency, the

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  9. Effect of Training and Development Programmes on Self-Efficacy of Banking Professionals in
    Chennai City

    value zero represents uniform value throughout the sample size, and higher value represents
    more dispersion of the frequency.

    6. STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL (SEM)
    Structural equation modeling (SEM) refers to a various set of mathematical models, computer
    algorithms, and statistical methods that fit complexes of constructs to data. SEM includes
    confirmatory factor analysis, path analysis, partial least squares path analysis, LISREL and
    latent growth modeling. The Structural Equation Model (SEM) was developed based on the
    conceptual model, to test the relationship among the chosen constructs. Figure 2 and 3
    represents the unstandardized and standardized estimates of the default model. The below
    mentioned model has 32 variables, in which 14 are observed variables, 18 are unobserved
    variables, 16 are exogenous and other 16 variables are endogenous variables.

    Figure 3 Unstandardised estimates in Structural Equation Model

    Figure 4 Standardised estimates in Structural Equation Model
    Figure 3 and 4 depicts the unstandardized estimates and standardized estimates in
    Structural Equation model respectively. Unstandardized parameter estimates retain scaling
    information of variables involved and can only be interpreted with reference to the scales
    of the variables, whereas Standardized parameter estimates are transformations of
    unstandardized estimates that remove scaling information and can be used for informal
    comparisons of parameters throughout the model. Standardized estimates correspond to
    effect-size estimates.

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  10. D. Mohanraj and Dr. N. Panchanatham

    Table 5 Regression Weights of the Conceptual Model
    Observed Unstandardized Standardized
    Latent variable S.E. C.R. P
    Variable Estimate Estimate
    Reaction

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    Chennai City

    3 Parsimonious fit Chi-square / DF 2.192 2 to 5 Marsh and Hocevar (1985) Good Fit
    Miscellaneous RMR (Root Mean Square
    4 0.039 < 0.08 (Hair et al. 2006) Good Fit
    Measure Residuals)
    (Source: Primary Data)

    Table 6 illustrations the model fit summary of the conceptual model. In this table, model
    fit indices are divided in to four categories such as absolute fit indices, incremental fit indices,
    parsimonious fit indices and miscellaneous indices. As mentioned in the table 6, all the four
    categories of indices values are at acceptable level, hence it can be concluded that the
    conceptual model is found to be appropriate fit. The results of Structural Equation Modeling
    (SEM) evident that the training has the impact on self-efficacy of the bank employees
    working in selected banks at Chennai city.

    7. CONCLUSIONS
    The training is provided in various industries to the employees working in different levels of
    management to cater the variety of needs such as enhancing skills and knowledge, technology
    upgradation, through various methods such as on-the-job training, off-the-job training, etc.
    The training is expected to produce the positive attitudinal outcomes such as improvement in
    quality, performance, productivity, attitude, etc. This research is another milestone in the area
    of research on training which evident that the training has impact on self-efficacy of the
    employees. Therefore, it is concluded that better training improves the employees‟ confident
    on their own self-efficacy.

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