Does bad credit affect the profitability of state owned banks listed on the Indonesia stock exchange?

This study aims to examine and analyze whether bad credit have a significant effect on the profitability of stateowned banks listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange.This study uses data from state-owned bankslisted on the Indonesia Stock Exchange during the period 2010 to 2017. The analyzed banks are 4 banks based on sample criteria.

***Ghi chú:** Có 2 link để tải biểu mẫu, Nếu Link này không download được, các bạn kéo xuống dưới cùng, dùng link 2 để tải tài liệu về máy nhé!

Download tài liệu Does bad credit affect the profitability of state owned banks listed on the Indonesia stock exchange? File Word, PDF về máy

##
Does bad credit affect the profitability of state owned banks listed on the Indonesia stock exchange?

##
Nội dung Text: Does bad credit affect the profitability of state owned banks listed on the Indonesia stock exchange?

Research Journal of Finance and Accounting www.iiste.org<br />

ISSN 2222-1697 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2847 (Online)<br />

Vol.11, No.2, 2020<br />

<br />

<br />

Does Bad Credit Affect the Profitability of State-Owned Banks<br />

Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange?<br />

Ramon Arthur Ferry Tumiwa<br />

Economics Faculty, Universitas Negeri Manado, Tondano 95618, Indonesia<br />

<br />

Abstract<br />

This study aims to examine and analyze whether bad credit have a significant effect on the profitability of state-<br />

owned banks listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange.This study uses data from state-owned bankslisted on the<br />

Indonesia Stock Exchange during the period 2010 to 2017. The analyzed banks are 4 banks based on sample<br />

criteria. The analysis method used is panel data analysis by using Microsoft Exel and Eviews 10 software.The<br />

results of this study found that bad credit has a negative and significant impact on bank profitability where the<br />

greater the bad credit can lead to the smaller the ability of banks to make profit<br />

Keywords: bad credit, profitability, state-owned banks, Indonesia Stock Exchange<br />

DOI: 10.7176/RJFA/11-2-08<br />

Publication date: January 31st 2020<br />

<br />

1. Introduction<br />

The bank is a financial intermediary institution that bridges the debtor with the creditor, or the institution that<br />

connects the parties that have excess funds with those who need funds. This can be seen from the activities of<br />

banks in collecting funds from the public through demand deposits, deposits and savings, and subsequently<br />

channeling these funds through lending to parties in need, conducting overseas payment transactions, foreign<br />

exchange services and other activities (Siamat, 2001). Banking is also called financial intermediary, which is a<br />

liaison institution between those who need funds and those who have excess funds (Budisantoso and Triandaru,<br />

2006). The distribution of funds by banks is done through lending, which is better known in the community by the<br />

name of credit.<br />

Banks and other financial institutions are specialized businesses which are strongly influenced by a number<br />

of conditions that are unique to the banking business, such as government regulations and access to government<br />

safety nets that include deposits and loans (Tumiwa et al., 2013)<br />

In the banking world, there are many types of credit offered to the public as prospective customers, including<br />

commercial or retail credit administration, namely loans granted to facilitate customer activities in which the<br />

business sector is trading (intended to finance the needs of the business world) in the form of revolving credit or<br />

credit in the form of non revolving.<br />

Commercial or retail credit customers generally come from the general public so that it does not rule out the<br />

possibility of a very large bottleneck due to their uncertain income in the business development process. Weak<br />

binding of collateral that is less than optimal such as the addition of sufficient unsecured loans, can not realize<br />

credit guarantees and banks are not able to master the collateral as soon as there is a sign of credit that is growing<br />

towards non-performing loans. The reduced economic activity and high credit interest rates will make it difficult<br />

for customers to repay loans or loans that have been received.<br />

As a sector engaged in banking and an economic entity the bank provides financial reports to show the<br />

information and financial position listed in the financial statements that will be used by investors to predict<br />

potential cash receipts from dividends and interest. The amount of profitability of the company is an important<br />

indicator in the financial statements where profitability is used as a basis for investment decision making and<br />

predictions to predict future earnings changes. Return on Assets (ROA) is one indicator to measure a company’s<br />

financial performance and is a profitability ratio that is used to measure the effectiveness of a company in<br />

generating profits by utilizing its total assets. ROA is the ratio between profit after tax to total assets. ROA focuses<br />

on the company’s ability to obtain earnings in the company’s operations (Siamat, 2001).<br />

In every transaction that occurs at the bank, there is a possibility that the customer is late making payments<br />

or is unable to pay. Credit that cannot be paid is called bad credit or non-performing loan (NPL).<br />

NPL is an indicator of the health of the quality of bank assets. The indicator is a basic financial ratio that can<br />

provide information on the assessment of capital conditions, profitability, credit risk, market risk and liquidation.<br />

Asset quality assessment is an assessment of the condition of bank assets and the adequacy of credit risk<br />

management. This means that NPL is an indication of a problem in the bank which if it does not immediately get<br />

a solution it will have a dangerous impact on the bank.<br />

The following is the data of Bad Credit (NPL), Total Credit and Profitability (ROA) of Bank BNI as follows:<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

77<br />

Research Journal of Finance and Accounting www.iiste.org<br />

ISSN 2222-1697 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2847 (Online)<br />

Vol.11, No.2, 2020<br />

<br />

Table 1. Bad Credit, Total Credit and Profitability Data from Bank BNI<br />

(In million rupiah)<br />

Year Bad Credit Total Credit Percentage Profitability<br />

(NPL) (%) (ROA)<br />

2010 811.410 136.356.959 0.59% 1.65%<br />

2011 1.581.220 163.533.423 0.96% 1.94%<br />

2012 4.329.200 200.742.305 2.15% 2.11%<br />

2013 4.138.417 250.637.843 1.26% 2.34%<br />

2014 4.193.876 277.622.281 1.51% 2.59%<br />

2015 5.138.759 326.105.149 1.57% 1.79%<br />

2016 9.211.661 393.275.392 2.34% 1.89%<br />

2017 7.234.126 441.313.566 1.63% 1.94%<br />

Source: www.idx.co.id (Processed, 2019)<br />

Table 1 above shows that Bank BNI’s profitability increased from 2010 to 2014 and decreased in 2015 while<br />

2016 to 2017 increased. However, bad credits indicated by NPLs tend to increase from year to year. This can pose<br />

a great risk to the bank as a state-owned bank. The same thing happened to Bank Mandiri as follows Table 2.<br />

Table 2. Bad Credit, Total Credit and Profitability Data from Bank Mandiri<br />

(In million rupiah)<br />

Year Bad Credit Total Credit Percentage Profitability<br />

(NPL) (%) (ROA)<br />

2010 2.231.187 203.636.955 0.82% 2.04%<br />

2011 3.756.623 269.130.432 1.39% 2.3%<br />

2012 4.048.181 332.643.019 1.21% 2.52%<br />

2013 5.252.183 396.769.382 1.32% 2.56%<br />

2014 6.029.254 444.435.737 1.35% 2.41%<br />

2015 8.867.336 494.522.154 1.79% 2.34%<br />

2016 11.402.536 556.752.621 2.04% 0.72%<br />

2017 11.750.919 602.168.145 1.95% 0.38%<br />

Source: www.idx.co.id (Processed, 2019)<br />

Table 2 above shows that Bank Mandiri’s profitability increased from 2010 to 2013 and decreased from 2014<br />

to 2017. Average NPL at Bank Mandiri increased from 2010 to 2016. and decreased in 2017.<br />

The purpose of this study is to test and analyze whether bad credits have a significant effect on the profitability<br />

of state-owned banks listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange.<br />

The results obtained will be used as material information and input for investors and state-owned bank<br />

decision makers in overcoming profitability in banks and to answer the inconsistency of previous research on the<br />

relationship between bad credit and profitability.<br />

In addition, it can be used as a study material for further research in examining the same problems in the<br />

future<br />

<br />

2. Profitability<br />

Profitability is the profit that a company earns over a period of time to reflect the company’s capabilities. According<br />

to Munawir (2002), Profitability is one of the attractive factors for shareholders as it triggers the dividend income<br />

paid from the profit or profit of the company. In addition, the increase in corporate profits will trigger stock market<br />

price increases and the potential for capital gains. Management is also very interested in profit because it is often<br />

used as a measure of performance.<br />

The regular levels of profitability as well as the rising tendency or profit trend are important factors that<br />

analysts need to consider in assessing a company’s profitability. High profitability for management or others, is<br />

more important than big profits.<br />

Profitability is the ability that a company achieves over a given period. The basis of profitability assessment<br />

is a financial report consisting of a balance sheet and a company expense. Based on these two reports it will be<br />

possible to determine the analysis results of a number of ratios and then these ratios are used to evaluate certain<br />

aspects of the company’s operations.<br />

Profitability ratio analysis aims to measure a company’s ability to profit, in relation to sales, assets, and capital.<br />

So profitability can be used as a benchmark or an overview of the effectiveness of management’s performance<br />

reviews of profitability compared to sales and investment results.<br />

This ratio is intended to measure the company’s ability to make a profit. In this research to measure<br />

profitability can use Return on Assets (ROA). This ratio is used to measure bank management’s ability to earn<br />

(overall) profit. The larger the ROA of a bank, the greater the profitability of the bank and the bank’s position in<br />

<br />

<br />

78<br />

Research Journal of Finance and Accounting www.iiste.org<br />

ISSN 2222-1697 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2847 (Online)<br />

Vol.11, No.2, 2020<br />

<br />

terms of asset utilization.<br />

ROA calculations are: (1) EBT is the bank’s profit before tax deduction, (2) Total Activities are all bank-<br />

owned activities, which include: Launch Activities, Fixed Activity. According to Bank Indonesia, the ROA<br />

standard is approximately 1.5%.<br />

<br />

3. Bad credit<br />

Bad credit is a condition in which a customer is no longer able or unable to pay any or all of his or her obligations<br />

to the bank as in a previous agreement. (Kuncoro dan Suhardjono, 2002). Bad credit is a credit that is subject to<br />

repayment difficulties due to factors or elements of the will or due to conditions beyond the creditor’s ability<br />

(Suharno, 2003). Bad credit is a situation where a customer is no longer able to pay some or all of his or her<br />

obligations to the bank as he or she has promised. Bad Credit according to Bank Indonesia’s terms are those that<br />

are classified as Lack of Collectability (KL), Doubt (D), and Bad (M).<br />

According to Tumiwa et al (2013), credit risk is defined as the risk associated with the failure of the client to<br />

pay their obligations or the risk that the debtor cannot repay his debt. Credit risk can come from a few things: (1)<br />

It is possible that a loan provided by a bank or an obligation purchased by a bank is unpaid. (2) It does not fulfill<br />

the obligations that the bank is involved in through another party, such as failure to fulfill its obligations on the<br />

derivative contract. (3) Solutions with exchange rates, interest rates and derivative products.<br />

Another form of credit risk is settlement risk that arises when two foreign exchange payments are made on<br />

the same day; this risk occurs when the other party’s counterparty may default on the institution’s payment. On<br />

settlement day, the total loss of the default counter party is equal to the full amount due.<br />

In this study the level of credit risk is improved with NPLs because NPLs can be met with productive activities<br />

owned by a bank.<br />

NPLs have a negative impact on banking performance. The higher the NPL, the lower the performance or<br />

profitability of banking. This is in line with the fact that having a bad credit score compared to its productive<br />

activities can lead to an opportunity for income and credit given, thus reducing profitability and negatively<br />

impacting the bank’s profitability. Every bank should keep its NPL below 5%. This is in line with Bank Indonesia’s<br />

provisions.<br />

Bad credit can generally affect a company’s profitability. What causes bad credit is the decline in economic<br />

activity and high credit rates so that customers who do credit can not pay the bank’s fixed installments. If there is<br />

no bad credit then the profitability level goes up but instead if there is bad credit then the profitability level goes<br />

down.<br />

Based on the above thinking, the hypotheses that can be formulated are as follows:<br />

H0: Bad credit does not have a significant impact on the profitability of state-owned banks listed on the<br />

Indonesian Stock Exchange.<br />

H1: Bad credit has a significant impact on the the profitability of state-owned banks listed on the Indonesian<br />

Stock Exchange.<br />

<br />

4. Research Methods<br />

This study is a quantitative study using associative methods. The source of data used in this study is the financial<br />

statements from 2010 to 2017 on the banking sub-sector listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange.<br />

The population in this study is the Financial Report 2010-2017 of all state-owned banks listed on the Indonesia<br />

Stock Exchange. The sampling technique used in this study is using purposive sampling method. As for the<br />

sampling criteria with the purposive sampling method as follows: (1) Banking Subsidiary Listed on the Indonesian<br />

Stock Exchange, (2) Financial Statements during the period 2010-2017, (3) Data collected is audited and published<br />

company data.<br />

So the sample taken in this study is Financial Report from 2010-2017 on Bank BRI, Bank BNI, Bank Mandiri,<br />

and Bank BTN. The data analysis technique used in this study uses panel data. And in this study using Microsoft<br />

Exel and Eviews 10 software data processing tools.<br />

<br />

5. Results and Discussions<br />

Descriptive Analysis aims to provide an explanation of the percentage and average value of the variables used in<br />

the study including the dependent variable (Y) namely Profitability and the independent variable (X) used is Bad<br />

Credit so it will provide a clearer picture of the variables being studied. Based on statistic test results obtained<br />

from 4 companies sampled for 8 years. The following is a summary of descriptive statistics using eviews 10.<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

79<br />

Research Journal of Finance and Accounting www.iiste.org<br />

ISSN 2222-1697 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2847 (Online)<br />

Vol.11, No.2, 2020<br />

<br />

Table 3. Descriptive Statistics Results<br />

Explanation ROA? NPL?<br />

Mean 2.020000 1.607813<br />

Min 0.380000 0.590000<br />

Max 3.410000 3.220000<br />

Std.Dev 0.811820 0.716347<br />

Source: secondary data processed (Eviews 10)<br />

The statistical test results using eviews 10 are outputs that describe the results of the mean, maximum,<br />

minimum, and standard deviation of the dependent and independent variables, so that it can be seen statistically<br />

how the description of the variable is. NPL has a mean value of 2.020000 to the profitability of banks. The bank’s<br />

Max NPL value is 3.220000 to profitability and the minimum value is 0.590000.<br />

ROA has a mean value of 2.020000 which means that the average company’s ability to utilize assets to<br />

produce profitability is 2.020000. The highest value for the company’s ability to use assets to produce company<br />

profitability is 3.410000 and the lowest is 0.380000.<br />

<br />

Model Selection Test<br />

Data management is done by panel data analysis using E-views 10 software. There are three models used in panel<br />

data regression, namely: (1) Common Effect Model, (2) Fixed Effect Model (FEM), and (3) Random Effect Model<br />

(REM), each model has advantages and disadvantages of each. The choice of the model depends on the<br />

assumptions used by the researcher and the fulfillment of the requirements for correct statistical data processing,<br />

so the results can be accounted for statistically. Therefore, the first step that must be done is to choose the right<br />

model from the three available models. Panel data that has been collected is revised using the Common Effect<br />

model, the results of which can be seen in table 3. Whereas the regression results with the Fixed Effect model can<br />

be seen in table 4.<br />

Table 4. Regression Results using Common Effect models<br />

Variable Coefficient Std. Error t-Statistic Prob.<br />

<br />

C 3.375363 0.242777 13.90312 0.0000<br />

NPL? -0.842986 0.138286 -6.095943 0.0000<br />

<br />

R-squared 0.553309 Mean dependent var 2.020000<br />

Adjusted R-squared 0.538419 S.D. dependent var 0.811820<br />

<br />

Source: secondary data processed (Eviews 10)<br />

<br />

Table 5. Regression Results using Fixed Effect models<br />

<br />

Variable Coefficient Std. Error t-Statistic Prob.<br />

<br />

C 2.565572<br />

-0.339326 0.352864<br />

0.213083 7.270709<br />

-1.592457 0.0000<br />

0.1229<br />

NPL? 2.565572 0.352864 7.270709 0.0000<br />

<br />

Effects Specification<br />

<br />

Cross-section fixed (dummy variables)<br />

<br />

R-squared 0.698062 Mean dependent var 2.020000<br />

Adjusted R-squared 0.653330 S.D. dependent var 0.811820<br />

Source:<br />

secondary data processed (Eviews 10)<br />

The Chow Test is then performed. The test is required to select the model that is most appropriate between the<br />

Common Effect or Fixed Effect model. This test is hypothesized.<br />

H0 = Common Effect Method<br />

H1 = FEM Method<br />

The following Results from the Chow Test can be seen in table 6<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

80<br />

Research Journal of Finance and Accounting www.iiste.org<br />

ISSN 2222-1697 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2847 (Online)<br />

Vol.11, No.2, 2020<br />

<br />

Table 6. Chow Test Results<br />

<br />

Effects Test Statistic d.f. Prob.<br />

<br />

Cross-section F 4.314694 (3,27) 0.0131<br />

Cross-section Chi-square 12.532597 3 0.0058<br />

<br />

Source: secondary data processed (Eviews 10)<br />

The results from the Chow Test in table 6 indicate that the p-value (Prob) is less than 0.05, indicating that H0<br />

which states the model following the Common is rejected. Therefore the model selected is Fixed Effect.<br />

And then perform the regression with the Random Effect model, to determine the exact panel regression<br />

model. Results from the regression using the Random Effect model can be seen in table 7.<br />

Table 7. Regression Results using Random Effect Model<br />

<br />

Variable Coefficient Std. Error t-Statistic Prob.<br />

<br />

C 3.128534 0.280398 11.15746 0.0000<br />

NPL? -0.689467 0.154351 -4.466879 0.0001<br />

<br />

R-squared 0.365212 Mean dependent var 1.307702<br />

Adjusted R-squared 0.344052 S.D. dependent var 0.634554<br />

<br />

Source: secondary data processed (Eviews 10)<br />

Both the table 5 results from the regression using the Fixed Effect model and table 7 represent the Random<br />

Effect, all of which show that bad credit (NPL) significantly affects the firm’s profitability (ROA).<br />

But to decide which model to use. Therefore, a Hausman test is needed to find out. The Hausman test can be<br />

defined as a statistical test to determine if the Fixed Effect or Random Effect model is best used. The Hausman<br />

Test is based on the following hypothesis:<br />

H0 = Random Effect Model<br />

H1 = Fixed Effect Model<br />

This Hausman test statistic follows the distribution of Chi Square statistic with degree of freedom of k, where<br />

k is the number of independent variables. If the Hausman statistic value is greater than the critical value then H0<br />

is rejected and the exact model is the Fixed Effect model whereas on the other hand if the Hausman statistic is<br />

smaller than the critical value then the exact model is Random Effect or if the p-value of the Hausman test is<br />

significant (more less than 5%) then H0 is rejected, meaning it is better to use FEM method. In table 8. the results<br />

of the Hausman test are performed using Eviews 10.<br />

Table 8. Hausman Test Results<br />

<br />

Chi-Sq.<br />

Test Summary Statistic Chi-Sq. d.f. Prob.<br />

<br />

Cross-section random 5.681066 1 0.0171<br />

<br />

Source: secondary data processed (Eviews 10)<br />

From the table 8, it is known that the p-value (prob) is 0.0171 (smaller than 0.05), then H0 is rejected and H1<br />

is accepted so that the Random Effect model is better.<br />

Hypothesis Testing<br />

A hypothesis is a conclusions or conclusions that can be formulated without certainty. So to know whether<br />

or not the hypothesis is large. Then the test should be done first. Test the partial regression coefficients or t tests<br />

to see if the independent variables individually affect the dependent variables.<br />

The value of bad credit regression coefficient is -0.689467 and significant value 0.0001