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Customer’s perception and satisfaction towards services of public & private sector banks

Customer’s perception and satisfaction towards services of public & private sector banks
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The issue is of importance to address the often raised concerns of differences in working and quality of services provided by public and private sector banks.

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  1. International Journal of Management (IJM)
    Volume 7, Issue 6, September–October 2016, pp.77–88, Article ID: IJM_07_06_009
    Available online at
    http://www.iaeme.com/ijm/issues.asp?JType=IJM&VType=7&IType=6
    Journal Impact Factor (2016): 8.1920 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com
    ISSN Print: 0976-6502 and ISSN Online: 0976-6510
    © IAEME Publication

    CUSTOMER’S PERCEPTION AND SATISFACTION
    TOWARDS SERVICES OF PUBLIC & PRIVATE
    SECTOR BANKS
    Kesari Singh and Nitin Gupta
    School of Business Management & Liberal Arts,
    Shoolini University of Biotechnology & Management Sciences, Solan, H.P. INDIA.

    ABSTRACT
    Indian Banking has gone tremendous changes over time and the entry of private sector banks has
    transformed the Indian banking both structurally and functionally. In this competitive banking
    environment, customer satisfaction is considered as most imperative factor for the success of banks.
    To attain the high level of customer satisfaction and to retain the customer base, it is important for
    the banks to deliver quality services to its customers. Hence, the study analyzed relative customer
    satisfaction levels of private and public sector banks. The issue is of importance to address the often
    raised concerns of differences in working and quality of services provided by public and private
    sector banks. A sample of 900 customers from the three northern region states viz. Punjab, Haryana
    and Himachal Pradesh was selected for the primary survey. Well-structured questionnaire was used
    to collect data. Customer perception and satisfaction was studied through various parameters viz.
    effectiveness, accessibility, cost, tangibles, reliability and empathy. Association between these
    indicators with the socio-economic variables viz. age, gender, occupation, annual income and area
    was studied through chi-square test. Public sector banks were more cost effective whereas, private
    sector did better in terms of tangibles. Private sector banks were comparatively more reliable due to
    proficiency in service delivery.
    Key words: customer satisfaction, private sector banks, public sector banks, service quality.
    Cite this Article: Kesari Singh and Nitin Gupta, Customer’s Perception and Satisfaction towards
    Services of Public & Private Sector Banks. International Journal of Management, 7(6), 2016, pp.
    77–88.
    http://www.iaeme.com/IJM/issues.asp?JType=IJM&VType=7&IType=6

    1. INTRODUCTION
    Indian Banking has gone through enormous changes since independence. Introduction of new technologies,
    economic uncertainties, fierce competition and changing demand of customers created a competitive
    scenario for banks. In today’s fast moving life and highly competitive environment, the banking sector has
    to understand and analyze the customer’s perception and requirements for service quality. To attain the high
    level of customer satisfaction and to retain the customer base, it is important for the banks to deliver quality
    services to its customers. The term service quality can be termed as a significant determinant of
    competitiveness for establishing the sustainable and satisfying relationships with customers. Persuraman

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  2. Kesari Singh and Nitin Gupta

    et.al (1992) defined service quality as the customer’s comparison between service expectation and service
    performance. Customer satisfaction is a measure of how products and services provided by any organization
    meet the expectation of a customer. The efficiency of the banking sector depends on how it delivers the
    services to its existing customers. To survive in this competitive environment, it is important for banks to
    provide fast and efficient services to its customers.
    However, even after offering wide range of services, there exists a gap between the services offered by
    banks and the expectations of the customers. In this fast changing scenario, it is important that banks should
    go for customer segmentation and provide reliable, independent, impartial opinion and tailored treatment
    that customers now expect. Customer satisfaction is a vague and theoretical concept and actual expression
    of the state of satisfaction will vary from person to person and service to service (Kanojia and Yadav, 2012).
    Hence, the present study was undertaken with an objective to compare the perception and customer
    satisfaction towards quality of services provided by the public and private sector banks.

    2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
    Customer satisfaction is one of the major determinants of performance and efficiency of a bank. Profitability
    of the bank depends upon the quality of services it can deliver to its customers. Continuous improvement in
    the quality of services is also required to survive in the competitive environment. Some of the studies
    conducted on customer satisfaction with respect to services provided by the public and private sector banks
    in India have been summarized below:
    Aurora and Malhotra (1997) in their study titled, “Customer Satisfaction: A Comparative Analysis of
    Public and Private Sector Banks” analyzed the level of customer satisfaction and some marketing strategies
    in both private and public sector banks in India. On studying the parameters of satisfaction it was found that
    routine operations, price, situational, environment, technology and interactive were the six factors of
    customer satisfaction among public sector banks. But in private sector banks researcher found seven factors
    of satisfaction out of which staff factor was ranked first and situational factor was the lowest ranked among
    all seven. It was concluded that public sector banks should develop strategies for proper training and
    development of bank staff, regular market surveys, designing customized services, avoiding long queues in
    bank and maintaining attractive décor. Only then public sector banks will be able to compete with private
    sector banks.
    Debashis and Mishra (2005) measured customer satisfaction in branch services provided by public
    sector banks in northern India. About 1200 customers were surveyed and it was found out that
    computerization, accuracy in transactions, attitude of staff and availability of staff mostly influence
    customer satisfaction. Least important factor was promotion of the products and various schemes.
    Mishra and Jain (2007) conducted a study of nationalized and private sector banks to know the
    constituent dimensions of customer satisfaction. Two stage factor analyses technique was used to arrive at
    the dimensions of customer satisfaction. On analyzing it was found that vigilance, competence, advancement
    in services, reliability, vision, responsiveness, reach, cost effectiveness and efficient process were the
    constituent factors of customer satisfaction for nationalized banks, whereas service quality, reliability,
    competence, efficient process, customization, ATM facility, vision, vigilance, simplicity of system and
    brand image were the essential factors for private sector banks.
    Mengi (2009) conducted an empirical study to evaluate and compare the service quality offered to the
    customers by public and private sector banks of Jammu. SERVQUAL (service quality) scale was used to
    determine different dimensions of service quality and chi-square test was performed to understand the impact
    of SERVPERF (service performance) dimensions (tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and
    empathy) on customer satisfaction. Study revealed that the customers of public sector banks were more
    satisfied with the service quality offered as compared to those of private sector banks.
    Rao and Lakew (2011) in their study on “Service Quality Perceptions of Customers: A Study of the
    Customers’ of Public Sector and Private Sector Commercial Banks in India”, examined the service quality
    perceptions of customers of public and private sector banks in the city of Visakhapatnam. Total 300

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  3. Customer’s Perception and Satisfaction towards Services of Public & Private Sector Banks

    respondents were surveyed using the universally accepted SERVQUAL model in which 42 quality
    measuring parameters were used under the five dimensions of service quality i.e. tangibles, reliability,
    assurance, responsiveness and empathy. It was concluded that out of all variables reliability and assurance
    were rated highest while the tangibles dimension got the lowest score. Moreover, the study revealed that
    there was the strong dissimilarity in service quality perceptions between customers of private sector and
    public sector banks.
    Dharmalingam and Kannan (2011) carried out an empirical study to evaluate the service quality of
    new private sector banks in Tamilnadu. Data was collected from 240 respondents from three private sector
    banks i.e. ICICI Bank, AXIS Bank and HDFC Bank. On analyzing it was judged that from all selected
    variables of customer perception, tangibles were rated highest and product variety area was rated lowest
    among all.
    Bilamge (2011) in “A Comparative Study of Customer Perception Towards Services Rendered by
    Public Sector and Private Sector Banks”, evaluated and compared the customer satisfaction level in ICICI
    bank and State Bank of India. The results of the study revealed that behavior of the ICICI Bank staff was
    friendlier than that of State Bank of India. As compared to SBI, token system and upholding of ATMs in
    ICICI Bank was highly treasured by all the customers. It was concluded that vital services were lacking in
    both the banks.
    Virk and Mahal (2012) analyzed the customer satisfaction level of Public and Private Sector Banks by
    conducting a comparative study in Chandigarh City. The study revealed that branch facilities were positively
    correlated with teller services, relationship with managers, mutual fund services and telephone enquiry which
    contribute in large extent towards customer satisfaction. Further it was concluded that private sector banks
    emphasize more upon building their clients and are better equipped with modern infrastructure as compared
    to public sector banks.
    Gupta et.al (2013) compared the customers’ perception of service quality of public and private
    banks of Delhi and NCR using SERVQUAL method. The questionnaire consisting five key dimensions
    namely tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy was circulated among 200 respondents
    using simple random sampling technique. Study revealed that private banks satisfied their customers with
    good services and they had successfully implemented tangible factors like modern equipments,
    infrastructural facilities, quality of materials used etc. Further, it was explored that most of the respondents
    felt that the employees of private banks were very keen to satisfy their customers whereas on other hand
    customers of nationalized banks felt that the employees were least bothered about their customers.
    Gill and Arora (2013) conducted a comparative analysis of level of customer satisfaction towards
    services provided by public and private sector banks. Two public sector banks selected for the study include
    Punjab and Sind Bank and Union Bank of India and the private banks include HDFC bank and IDBI bank.
    Primary survey of 200 customers was conducted using convenient sampling method in three major cities of
    Punjab namely Amritsar, Jalandhar and Ludhiana. It was analyzed that private banks need to work on gaining
    faith of customers as customers still don’t feel secured while dealing with terms and conditions given by
    private banks whereas public banks enjoy the hierarchical trust as they are older in Indian financial system.
    Further study revealed that public banks need to work more on technology and overall décor to survive in
    the market.
    The literature highlighted various factors which determine the customer perception and satisfaction
    towards the service quality. However, the evidences of association between socio-economic variables and
    customer satisfaction with respect to public and private sector banks are limited. Hence, the study was
    undertaken to get a broader view on the variation in the perception and level of satisfaction of customers
    across socio-economic variables.
    Anita (2014) in her research article presented the customer satisfaction level between public and private
    sector banks to get a bird’s eye view of customer satisfaction practices being adopted by selected banks. It
    was also analyzed that customers were more satisfied with the private sector banks than public sector banks

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  4. Kesari Singh and Nitin Gupta

    and customer satisfaction is largely dependent upon products availability in the banks rather than locations
    of the bank.

    3. MATERIAL AND METHODS
    The study was carried out in three states viz. Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh in northern region of
    India. One city was purposively chosen from each selected state. Major consideration in selecting these cities
    for detailed survey was taken as the availability of all the chosen banks in the selected city. Thus, three cities
    viz., Shimla in Himachal Pradesh, Panchkula in Haryana and Mohali in Punjab were taken for the purpose
    of survey for customer satisfaction. Finally, a sample of 300 customers of the selected banks (150 private +
    150 public) from each state was interviewed using convenience sampling method. In this process, total
    sample of 900 customers was studied to fulfill the objective of customer satisfaction.
    For the selection of banks, two separate lists of public and private sector banks operating in the selected
    states were prepared, using the relevant data published by Indian Banks Association. Public and private
    sector banks were arranged on the basis of their total assets. A random sample of three banks each were
    selected from the lists of public and private sector banks for conducting the survey for analyzing the customer
    satisfaction of the services provided by the two groups of banks. The banks so selected for the detailed study
    included Bank of India, Union Bank of India, Punjab & Sind Bank in the category of public sector banks
    and ICICI Bank, Axis Bank, Indus Ind Bank in private sector bank category.
    A well-structured questionnaire was used during the surveys to collect data from the selected customers.
    Responses were collected by using likert scale. Parameters taken to study the customer satisfaction included
    effectiveness, accessibility, cost, tangibles, reliability and empathy. These parameters were further evaluated
    on the basis of different indicators and the association between customer satisfaction indicators and socio-
    economic variables was studied to get a clear picture of the customer satisfaction towards selected services
    provided by the banks. The questionnaire consisted of the questions related to each selected parameters of
    different indicators of satisfaction towards banking services used by the customers and about the suggestions
    of the customers for possible improvement in these services. Data collected was analyzed using chi square
    test.

    4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
    The present study attempted to measure the customer’s satisfaction with respect to the services provided by
    public and private sector banks. Various parameters viz. service effectiveness, accessibility, cost, tangibility
    and bank reliability were used to measure the customer satisfaction. These parameters were further evaluated
    by recording the customer responses towards various service quality indicators. Responses were collected
    by using likert scale. The association between selected indicators and the socio-economic variables viz. age,
    gender, educational qualification, occupation annual income and area, was studied by using chi-square test
    to get a clear picture of the customer satisfaction with regard to banking services. The results of chi square
    test have been presented below.

    4.1. Effectiveness Indicators and Customer Satisfaction
    The customer responses towards effectiveness indicators were studied to know the level of customer
    satisfaction with respect to the service quality of both public and private sector banks. Results of the study
    have been given in the table 4.1 below.
    H0; 1: There is no significant relationship between socio-economic variables and effectiveness indicators.

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  5. Customer’s Perception and Satisfaction towards Services of Public & Private Sector Banks

    Table 4.1 Association between Socio-Economic Variables and Effectiveness Indicators

    (Chi Square Analysis)

    Socio-economic Variables
    Effectiveness Indicators Bank
    Age Gen EQ OCC AI Area
    Group

    Courteous and friendly employee Public .029* Ns ns .027* ns ns
    behavior Private ns Ns ns ns .003* ns
    Public .029* Ns ns ns ns ns
    Recognition as a valued customer
    Private ns Ns ns ns .007* ns

    Bank maintains customer Public .011* Ns ns .038* ns ns
    confidentiality Private ns Ns ns ns ns ns

    Bank provides fast and efficient Public ns .035* ns ns ns ns
    services Private ns Ns ns ns .002* ns

    Trained and knowledgeable bank Public ns ns ns ns ns ns
    personnel Private ns ns .005* ns ns ns
    Public ns .049* Ns .025* ns ns
    Bank have good reputation
    Private ns ns ns ns ns ns

    Feeling of security in bank Public .011* ns ns .007* ns ns
    transactions Private ns ns ns ns .035* ns
    Note: Gen-Gender, EQ-Educational Qualification, OCC-Occupation, AI-Annual Income
    **; non-significant, p>0.05, *; significant, p

  6. Kesari Singh and Nitin Gupta

    association between gender and quality of bank services was found to be significant. However, in case of
    private sector banks, opinion varied with the income meaning thereby, higher income group found the private
    bank services to be fast and efficient. As far as the capabilities of the bank staff was concerned, educational
    qualification of the respondents was found to be having a significant relationship in case of private banks
    which implies that customers with higher qualification were of the opinion that the private banks had well
    trained and knowledgeable staff. No significant relationship between capabilities of the bank staff with any
    of the socio-economic variables was found in case of public sector banks.
    While comparing the public and private sector banks in terms of reputation, opinions varied with gender
    and occupation but only in case of public sector banks. It infers that public banks had a good reputation
    among its female customers. When it comes to the feeling of security in bank transactions, opinion varied
    with age and occupation in case of public sector banks and varied with income in case of private sector banks
    because the relationship was found to be significant in these variables. It denotes that the higher income
    customers of private banks feel secure while making transactions whereas, in case of public sector banks,
    higher age group customers feel more secure making transactions. No significant relationship was found
    between effectiveness indicators and the area (rural, semi-urban and urban).
    Hence, it can be concluded that socio-economic variables viz. age, gender and occupation had a
    significant association with effectiveness indicators in case of public sector banks. Educational qualification
    and annual income of the respondents were found to be having significant relationship with the effectiveness
    indicators in case of private sector banks.

    4.2. Access Indicators and Customers’ Satisfaction
    The accessibility of banking services was studied through various indicators like availability of ATMs, user
    friendly internet & mobile banking facilities, branch network, adequate customer service etc. The results
    have been presented in the table 4.2.
    H0; 2: There is no significant relationship between socio-economic variables and access indicators.

    Table 4.2 Association between Socio-economic Variables and Access indicators

    (Chi Square Analysis)

    Socio-Economic Variables
    Accessibility Indicators
    Bank
    Age Gen EQ OCC AI Area
    Group
    Availability of sufficient number of Public ns ns ns ns ns ns
    ATMs Private .000* ns ns ns .003* ns

    User friendly Internet and mobile Public ns ns .045* ns ns ns
    banking facility Private .000* .005* ns .015* .008* ns
    Public ns .012* ns ns ns ns
    Short waiting time at the counter
    Private .001* ns .033* ns ns ns
    Public ns ns ns ns ns ns
    Wide bank branch network
    Private .001* ns ns .000* ns ns

    Adequate customer services & Public ns ns ns ns ns ns
    support of the bank Private ns ns ns ns ns ns
    Note: Gen-Gender, EQ-Educational Qualification, OCC-Occupation, AI-Annual Income

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  7. Customer’s Perception and Satisfaction towards Services of Public & Private Sector Banks

    **; non-significant, p>0.05, *; significant, p

  8. Kesari Singh and Nitin Gupta

    Private Ns ns ns ns ns Ns

    Adequate Processing Charges for Public Ns ns ns ns ns Ns
    using the services Private Ns ns ns ns ns Ns
    Note: Gen-Gender, EQ-Educational Qualification, OCC-Occupation, AI-Annual Income
    **; non-significant, p>0.05, *; significant, p

  9. Customer’s Perception and Satisfaction towards Services of Public & Private Sector Banks

    relationship existed between socio-economic variables like age, gender and educational qualification and
    tangible indicators, which implies that opinion of the customers towards information access, decor,
    appearance of employees and availability of modern technology varies with these variables. On other hand,
    in case of public sector banks, no association between socio-economic variables viz. age, gender and
    qualification and tangible indicators was found. It implies that higher age and income group customers of
    private banks were comparatively more satisfied with the access to account statement and other information
    provided by these banks. In terms of the décor of the banks, satisfaction level varied with age and
    qualification of the customers in case of private banks and it varied with occupation in public banks. It is
    because the salaried class do not give much importance to the décor of the public sector banks whereas, well
    qualified and higher age customers being more judgmental in terms of private sector banks. It has also been
    revealed that in case of both the bank groups, no significant relationship was found between the area and
    tangible indicators of customer satisfaction.
    As far as the appearance and dressing sense of the staff was concerned, there was found a significant
    relationship between this indicator and the age, gender, qualification and income of the customers because
    the customers of private banks were highly demanded. Only occupation was found to be significantly related
    to appearance of the public bank staff. In terms of availability of the modern equipments, significant
    relationship was found with occupation and income in public banks meaning thereby, higher income and
    self-employed customers were comparatively more satisfied with these modern equipments because the
    salaried class and low income group were not very technology savvy. On the contrary, in private sector
    banks, age and qualification had significant relationship with this indicator implying that higher age group
    and business as well as self-employed customers were comparatively more satisfied with the modern
    techniques.

    4.5. Reliability Indicators and Customer Satisfaction
    Reliability was studied in terms of identification and correction of errors in service delivery also the interest
    taken by the banks in resolving the issues. The findings have been presented in table 4.5.
    H0; 5: There is no significant relationship between socio-economic variables and reliability indicators.

    Table 4.5 Association between socio-economic variables and Reliability indicators

    (Chi Square Analysis)

    Socio-Economic Variables
    Reliability Indicators
    Bank
    Age Gen EQ OCC AI Area
    Group

    Identifies and correction of errors in Public .049* ns ns .026* .036* Ns
    service delivery Private ns ns ns ns ns Ns

    Sincere interest taken by staff in Public Ns ns ns ns ns Ns
    solving the problems Private .006* ns ns ns ns Ns
    Note: Gen-Gender, EQ-Educational Qualification, OCC-Occupation, AI-Annual Income
    **; non-significant, p>0.05, *; significant, p

  10. Kesari Singh and Nitin Gupta

    socio-economic variables (gender, educational qualification and area) had no significant association with
    reliability indicators, which implies that all the customers irrespective of gender, qualification and area had
    the same opinion regarding reliability of the bank services. Hence, public sector banks need to work sincerely
    towards troubleshooting the errors and emissions.

    4.6. Empathy Indicators and Customer Satisfaction
    Empathy dimension deals with the approach of the banks towards its customers in understanding their
    specific needs, having convenient operating hours and complaint handling. The level of satisfaction of the
    customers towards empathy indicators has been analyzed in table 4.6.
    H0; 6: There is no significant relationship between socio-economic variables and Empathy indicators.

    Table 4.6 Association between socio-economic variables and Empathy Indicators

    (Chi Square Analysis)

    Socio-Economic Variables
    Empathy Indicators
    Bank
    Age Gen EQ OCC AI Area
    Group
    Public Ns Ns ns ns ns ns
    Convenient operating hours
    Private Ns Ns ns ns .040* ns
    Public Ns Ns ns .019* ns ns
    Personal attention to customers
    Private Ns .037* .000* ns ns ns
    Public Ns Ns ns .003* ns ns
    Consideration of specific needs
    Private ns Ns ns ns ns ns
    Public ns Ns ns ns ns ns
    Effective complaints handling
    Private ns Ns ns ns ns ns
    Note: Gen-Gender, EQ-Educational Qualification, OCC-Occupation, AI-Annual Income
    **; non-significant, p>0.05, *; significant, p

  11. Customer’s Perception and Satisfaction towards Services of Public & Private Sector Banks

    5. CONCLUSION
    Public sector banks should work to win the confidence of salaried class and lower age group customers
    specially students as these banks had a better image in the eyes of customers of higher age group,
    businessmen and self-employed people. On the contrary, private sector banks should give much attention to
    the lower income group customers also because the higher income group found the services provided by the
    se banks to be more effective. However, mobile and internet banking was a matter of concern for the public
    and private sector banks but the issues varied. Private sector banks need to make these services more user
    friendly to the level of lower income group customers, salaried class and students as well. Conversely, public
    sector banks have to create awareness among its customers about these services so that they feel confident
    in using these services. As far as reliability and cost effectiveness are concerned, public sector banks should
    focus on developing some mechanism for the correction of errors in service delivery and also should pay
    attention towards timely refund in case of unsuccessful transactions etc. Private sector banks should be little
    more transparent in fee and other charges. As far as the tangibility is concerned, there are high expectations
    from the private sector banks in terms of well-dressed staff, attractive décor and access to account statements
    and other information. On the contrary, public sector banks should also attempt to be at par with private
    sector banks in the times to come. Both the private and public sector banks have been empathetic towards
    their customers because it is the need of the hour in today’s competitive world.

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