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Comparison of methods for the recognition of derivative financial products within the scope of Turkish financial reporting standards (TFRS)
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In this study, attention is drawn to the assessment and recognition of the derivatives in line with the aforementioned standards, and alternative solutions are discussed.

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  1. International Journal of Management (IJM)
    Volume 8, Issue 1, January–February 2017, pp.202–211, Article ID: IJM_08_01_024
    Available online at
    http://www.iaeme.com/ijm/issues.asp?JType=IJM&VType=8&IType=1
    Journal Impact Factor (2016): 8.1920 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com
    ISSN Print: 0976-6502 and ISSN Online: 0976-6510
    © IAEME Publication

    COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR THE
    RECOGNITION OF DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL
    PRODUCTS WITHIN THE SCOPE OF TURKISH
    FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS (TFRS)
    Burak TERİM, Ph.D
    Asst. Professor
    Manisa Celal Bayar University
    Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences
    Department of Business Administration, Manisa/Turkey

    ABSTRACT
    In the global competition environment, the companies’ areas of usage regarding derivative
    financial products became widespread and these instruments started to take an important place in
    the liability statements of the businesses. In terms of financial accounting, the companies need to
    reflect the usage of derivative financial products in their financial statements, and in terms of
    administrative accounting, they search for methods that will facilitate the follow-ups for the
    performance assessment and decision making procedures regarding the processes of large scale
    derivatives.
    The companies making investments in the derivatives in hopes of risk management or speculation
    acquire mutual rights and liabilities through the contracts they make. For the assessment and
    recognition of these rights and liabilities, the standards numbered TMS 32, TMS 39, TFRS 7 and
    TFRS 9 were published by the Public Oversight Authority of Turkey. These standards coincide with
    the standards published by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).
    In this study, attention is drawn to the assessment and recognition of the derivatives in line with
    the aforementioned standards, and alternative solutions are discussed.
    Key words: Derivatives, Hedge Accounting, IAS 32, IAS 39
    Cite this Article: Burak TERİM, Comparison of Methods For The Recognition of Derivative
    Financial Products Within The Scope of Turkish Financial Reporting Standards (TFRS),
    International Journal of Management, 8(1), 2017, pp. 202–211.
    http://www.iaeme.com/ijm/issues.asp?JType=IJM&VType=8&IType=1

    1. INTRODUCTION
    In terms of provisions and sales, the companies currently continuing their operations sustain their relations
    with the outer world in their production and sales operations, with the capacity of importer and/or exporter.
    Additionally, they supply their financial needs not only from internal sources (national banks, national
    money), but also from external financial sources (foreign banks, foreign leasing companies).

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  2. Comparison of Methods For The Recognition of Derivative Financial Products Within The Scope of Turkish
    Financial Reporting Standards (TFRS)

    As a result of this, the companies have the capacity to determine the hedge prices (fixing the late charges
    or foreign exchange rates) in accordance with the sectors and market types in which they carry out their
    operations. However, while the competition in the markets usually makes the practices of price hedging
    difficult, it also increases financial risks.
    Just like the investors, it can be said that the total risk encountered by the businesses during their
    operating periods is the total systematic and non-systematic risks, depending upon the uncertainty.
    Systematic risk factors can be market risks, political risks, interest rate risks and foreign exchange rate risks.
    These risk types concern the economy in whole, and comprise the risks that the business administration
    cannot intervene.
    Nonsystematic risks can be defined as financial risks, management risks, industrial risks and operations
    risks; and these risks are usually encountered by the businesses due to their own characteristics. The business
    administration can intervene in these kinds of risks (Sayılgan, 2003, p.340).
    The businesses usually prefer the usage of derivatives while diversifying the liability factors for
    optimizing the systematic and non-systematic risks.
    In this study, the aim is to discuss an alternative approach concerning the recognition of the financial
    transactions made by the businesses according to TMS 32 and TMS 39, in order for the businesses to be
    protected from various risks.

    2. DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS AND HEDGING
    Derivatives have been used for years as an effective risk management (hedging) instrument. When the
    Bretton Woods system (fixed exchange rate system) ended in 1972, the fluctuations in the exchange rates
    caused the companies to face exchange rate risks. On the other hand, fluctuations in the exchange rates in
    international money markets brought up the issue of high interests to the agenda. As a result of these
    developments, the derivative instruments, which were implemented only for commercial goods before,
    started to be used with the intent of prevention from the aforementioned risks (Kaygusuzoğlu, 2011, p.138).
    The fast development of the derivative financial instruments and the widespread usage of the derivative
    instruments in businesses brought up the recognition of these to the agenda. Recognition of the derivative
    financial instruments and demonstration of the relevant risks accurately in the financial statements and their
    disclosure has been set out in the accounting standards and financial reporting standards by the International
    Accounting Standards Board. Also in Turkey, the Turkish Accounting Standards Board published the
    standards regarding the derivative financial instruments in parallel with the international accounting
    standards. These standards are as follows:
    • TMS 32 “Financial Instruments: Presentation”
    • TMS 39 “Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement”
    • TFRS 7 “Financial Instruments: Disclosures”
    • TFRS 9 “Financial Instruments” (Bal and Öztürk, 2013, p.124-125).
    In TMS 32, a financial instrument is defined as “a contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity
    and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity”.
    The derivative financial instruments can be defined as financial products, which can be assessed in
    association with the asset prices, foreign currency, interests or stock market. The concerned products are
    various, depending upon the types of wares, interest rates, foreign exchange rates, share indices and share
    certificates.
    Hedging is defined as the methods of protection ensuring that the losses that may be originated from the
    fluctuations in the future interests, prices or foreign exchange rates are maintained minimum (Uzun, 2004,
    p. 10). The companies’ objective is to be protected from the damages incurred due to price movements by
    hedging the risks in order not to undergo the unexpected developments in foreign exchange rates, interest
    rates, stock quotes and asset prices.

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  3. Burak TERİM

    Derivatives can be used to transfer the risk from the parties wanting to be protected from the risks to the
    parties wanting to undertake the risks, and they can also be used for profits (Kaygusuz, 1998, p.11, Uzun,
    2004, p.10).
    Derivatives are described in TFRS 9 Financial Instruments Standard as follows:
    Derivative: A financial instrument or other contract within the scope of this TFRS (see paragraph 2.1) with
    all three of the following characteristics.
    • (a) Its value changes in response to the change in a specified interest rate, financial instrument price,
    commodity price, foreign exchange rate, index of prices or rates, credit rating or credit index, or other variable,
    provided in the case of a non-financial variable that the variable is not specific to a party to the contract
    (sometimes called the ‘underlying’).
    • (b) It requires no initial net investment or an initial net investment that is smaller than would be required for
    other types of contracts that would be expected to have a similar response to changes in market factors.
    • (c) It is settled at a future date.
    Derivatives can be used in organized markets and over-the-counter markets. Organized markets are the
    markets buying and selling standard derivatives in line with legal arrangements. All other transactions made
    outside of these markets can be referred as transactions in over-the-counter markets.
    Derivatives are used to decrease the cost of the used capital and to furnish these instruments with
    incentive characteristics for the investors, by bringing up the financial instruments that can keep up with the
    changes in the financial markets. In addition, derivatives can also be used with the intention of protecting
    the businesses form the future risks, which may occur in the stock exchange values, interest rates and foreign
    exchange rates. The main intended usages of derivatives are as follows (Ocakoğlu, 2013, p.53):
    • To reduce the debt costs,
    • To increase the debt capacity,
    • To increase the net cash flows,
    • To protect the existing assets and liabilities from risks,
    • To protect the foreign currency commitments from risk,
    • To protect the net investments of the associated companies.
    In addition to the main intended usages regarding the derivatives, the usages with the intent of speculation
    and arbitrage should also be addressed (Dizman, 2014, p.21);
    • Speculation: Based on the estimations and expectations, speculation is the act of buying or selling an asset
    with the intent of generating a profit from the increases and decreases of the asset’s price. For the estimation
    to be successful, it is necessary to possess more information than the others and to be able to evaluate this
    information better.
    • Arbitrage: Arbitrage is the purchase of an asset at a lower price than the market, and selling the asset at a
    higher price in another market.
    The main derivatives are: forward contracts, futures contracts, options and swaps. Brief definitions of these
    contracts are given below:
    Forward contracts are used in over-the-counter (off-exchange) trades. A forward contract is a contract
    between the parties to buy or sell a specific number of commercial products or financial instruments at a
    specified price on a specific future deat. These contracts generally cannot be transferred or exchanged, and
    it can be terminated with the parties’ mutual agreement. The price of the forward cannot be updated in line
    with the market value. Therefore, since the profits or losses cannot be known before the settlement date,
    there can also be no cash flow during this time. The profits and losses appear at the settlement date
    (Kaygusuzoğlu, 2011, p.141).

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  4. Comparison of Methods For The Recognition of Derivative Financial Products Within The Scope of Turkish
    Financial Reporting Standards (TFRS)

    Forward contacts can generally be used for all kinds of goods. In accordance with its general usage in
    the markets, frequently encountered forward contract types are foreign exchange forward contracts, interest
    forward contracts and commercial goods/commodity forward contracts.
    Futures contracts have the same intentions and functions as the forward contracts. The main difference
    between them is that the futures contracts are standardized and used in organized markets. A futures contract
    is a contract of a standard time period and amount, which is used in organized stock market and based on
    the daily settlement procedures (Chambers, 2012, p.6). Although there is no commitment liability in forward
    contracts, there is a liability to fulfill the daily commitments in futures contracts. In addition, while the true
    market value cannot be determined in forward contracts, it is possible to determine the daily market price in
    futures contracts (Ocakoğlu, 2013, p. 51).
    Options, which can be defined as “right to choose” in line with its lexical meaning, are financial
    instruments newer than the forward and futures contracts.
    An option also represents a contract including the future delivery of a property or financial asset at a
    price agreed upon today. However, its functioning is different than forward and futures contracts. The option
    contract offers the right to buy or sell a property or a financial asset in a specific period of time and at an
    agreed-upon price. The option holder has the right to use, or not to use the option in the exercise date in
    exchange for a certain premium. The option holder is not obliged to use the option at the exercise date. The
    maximum loss of the option buyer is the premium s/he pays. In return, the option seller receives the premium;
    however, the party buying the option has the right to use or not to use the option. In return for the premium
    received, the option seller acts in accordance with the decision of the option buyer (Adıgüzel and Yılmaz,
    2015, p.18).
    A swap is a contract through which two companies exchange future cash flows. The most frequently
    used derivative contracts in global markets are the swaps. Even though it is not used in official markets in
    Turkey, swaps are the leading contracts used frequently by the banks and companies in their interest risk
    management processes. A swap is a contract through which two parties exchange future cash flows. While
    one of the parties makes fixed payment, the other chooses a payment plan based on a certain variable and an
    index price. Within the framework of their payment plans made in accordance with the swap contract, the
    parties exchange a cash flow. Each party has different expectations regarding the price received in the future
    period by the underlying asset which will be exchanged. In swaps, the underlying asset is usually the interest
    payment. However, there are also swaps that use foreign exchange rates and commodity products as
    underlying assets (Saltoğlu, 2014, p.92).
    Most swaps involve foreign exchange swaps and interest rate swaps. A foreign exchange swap is a
    contract that consists of swapping two different currencies or the liabilities arising from the different
    currencies on the date of the contract, along with an agreement on swapping them again at a later date.
    In an interest rate swap, the independent parties, who borrowed the same amount of capital with a similar
    settlement date from a different borrowing source, exchange their interest payment liabilities, usually
    through an intermediary bank (Dizman, 2014, p.21).

    3. HEDGE ACCOUNTING
    Hedge accounting is a method of accounting where the derivatives are used for the purpose of protection
    from the risk (Haftacı, Pehlivanlı, 2007, p.141). Hedge accounting eliminates or significantly reduces a
    measurement or recognition inconsistency (sometimes referred to as ‘an accounting mismatch’) that would
    otherwise arise from measuring assets or liabilities or recognizing the gains and losses on them on different
    bases (TMSK, notification regarding tms39 S. No: 41, p.3).
    The purpose of its accounting policy is to reflect, as much as possible, the aim of the recognized
    transaction and its economic effects (Parlakkaya, 2003, p.168, Haftacı, Pehlivanlı, 2007, p. 141).
    Within the scope of the standard “TMS 39 Financial Instruments” it is stated that Hedge accounting
    recognizes the offsetting effects on profit or loss of changes in the fair values of the hedging instrument and

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  5. Burak TERİM

    the hedged item. In the same standard, hedging relationships are divided into three types: These are as
    follows:
    • Fair value hedge: A hedge of the exposure to changes in fair value of a recognized asset or liability or an
    unrecognized firm commitment, or an identified portion of such an asset, liability or firm commitment, that is
    attributable to a particular risk and could affect profit or loss.
    • Cash flow hedge: A hedge of the exposure to variability in cash flows that (i) is attributable to a particular risk
    associated with a recognized asset or liability (such as all or some future interest payments on variable rate
    debt) or a highly probable forecast transaction and (ii) could affect profit or loss.
    • Hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation: As defined in TMS 21.
    Moreover, in TMS 39, it is stated that a hedge of the foreign currency risk of a firm commitment may be
    accounted for as a fair value hedge or as a cash flow hedge.
    Using the hedge accounting ensures that the gain or loss on the hedging instrument and the hedged item
    are documented in the financial statements of the same periods. When a company becomes a party of a
    derivative instrument contract, the company can optionally use the hedge accounting to document the gains
    and losses it receives from derivative instruments and the gains and losses concerning the risk it faces.
    Currently, within the framework of the decisions of the Public Oversight, Accounting and Auditing
    Standards Authority (KGK) in Turkey, the companies’ accounting records are kept in accordance with
    TMS/TFRS and TDHP. However, to reflect the profit/loss emerged due to use of derivative instruments in
    the financial statement of the period of the relevant profit/loss, it is important for businesses to recognize
    such activities according to TMS, and to prepare their financial statements in line with TFRS (Çakır ve
    Sabuncu, 2016, p.136).

    4. HEDGE ACCOUNTING PRACTICES
    Up to the present, in many practices regarding the recognition of derivatives, the transactions regarding the
    derivatives have been kept in memorandum accounts, because these derivatives create conditional rights and
    liabilities.
    The globalization of financial markets and developments in communication technology has increased
    the importance of the needs regarding the comparability and transparency of financial statements. Especially
    the transparency of the financial statements is very important for all parties associated with the businesses.
    Therefore, the businesses’ all kinds of commercial transactions imposing obligations and providing rights to
    the business must be shown clearly in the financial statements. Because, when this company goes public, is
    transferred or becomes partners with a business, the concerned party should be able to acquire all information
    of the company from the company’s financial statements (Kırlıoğlu ve Altınkaynak, 2016, p. 608).
    Furthermore, memorandum accounts are the accounts acting as a reminder for the businesses, with their
    areas of usage such as the tracking of the letters of guarantee, of sureties and warranties, of the cases filed
    that can result in favor/against and that can impose a compensation liability, and of fixed assets, machines,
    equipment, tools, materials etc., which are brought outside of the company. Since the transactions kept in
    the memorandum accounts do not reflect an asset, resource or income/expense, these accounts cannot be
    compared with an asset, resource or operating account (Sevilengül, 2014, p. 610).
    At the end of the period, the memorandum accounts must be controlled one by one. If there is no
    remaining condition requiring the usage of the memorandum accounts, these accounts should be closed. If
    it is determined at the end of the period that these accounts should be further used, no changes in the
    memorandum items must be made. For this reason, the accounting units do not carry out the relevant controls
    regarding the state of the memorandum accounts, which is a wrong act in practice.
    Kırlıoğlu and Altınkaynak used a company operating in agricultural markets and addressed forward
    contracts. Emphasizing that the companies need to be transparent in their financial statements, they have
    reached the following opinion:

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  6. Comparison of Methods For The Recognition of Derivative Financial Products Within The Scope of Turkish
    Financial Reporting Standards (TFRS)

    “As a result of this study, it is seen that forward contracts impose liabilities to the signatory companies
    (parties) of the contract. These are the liabilities preventing them from transfer or unilaterally waive from
    the contract, and liabilities such as debt obligation and the right to claim. With the contracts reflected in the
    memorandum accounts in certain studies, after the contract is signed, if the company is sold or closed, the
    debt liability and the right to claim will not be shown in the financial statements and when the settlement
    date of the contract has come, there will be an unjust situation because this liability and right cannot be
    tracked. In this case, the certainty and transparency in terms of accounting would disappear. Reflecting these
    rights and liabilities, which start with the signing date of the contract and end only with the payment of the
    value of this contract, in the financial statements of the companies signed the contract is of vital importance
    in terms of the transparency of the financial statements and the company (Kırlıoğlu ve Altınkaynak, 2016,
    p.613).”
    Tracking by periods of the performance regarding the usage of derivative products are very important in
    terms of management. For this reason, reflecting the gains and losses of the businesses by using derivatives
    completely, timely and with full explanation is necessary.
    Especially for the large-scale companies making productions based on imports and exports and in which
    the derivatives are used widely, when important production factors with foreign currencies and variable
    prices are used, the alternative use of free accounts can also be discussed in order to eliminate the
    management problems and to create more transparent financial statements.

    5. EXAMPLES OF THE PRACTICES
    In this part of the study, the practices on the recognition of an accounting record concerning a forward
    contract one by one by using memorandum accounts and free accounts.
    Case Study: GLO Plastik San. A.Ş. An injection machine at a price of 250.000 € was ordered; the
    machine will be received on 01/12/2016 and its price will be paid at the same date. In order to be protected
    from the currency fluctuations till the settlement date, the company bought a foreign currency forward
    contract for an amount of 250.000€ with the forward currency rate of 1€=3,60₺ on 01/06/2016 (VAT,
    Commission Expenses and Warranty Payments excluded from the calculation) The currencies of those dates
    are as follows:
    01/06/2016 1€=3,2953₺
    01/12/2016 1€=3,6686₺
    The relevant accounting records would be:

    01.06.2016
    9XX FORWARD CONT. DEBTORS 900000

    9XY FORWARD CONT. CREDITORS 900000
    (Entering the Forward Contract in the Memorandum
    Accounts)
    250000€ x 3,60₺/€
    01.12.2016

    116 DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL RESOURCES 17150

    562 DERIVATIVE FIN. INSTR.
    FAIR VALUE DIFFERENCES 17150

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  7. Burak TERİM

    (Currency Change Valuation Record regarding the Forward
    Contract)
    250000€ x (3,6686-3,60)₺/€
    01.12.2016

    253 MACHINERY, EQUIP. AND INST. 917150

    102 BANKS 900000
    116 DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL
    RESOURCES 17150
    (Tangible Asset Purchase Record)
    250000€ x 3,6686₺/€
    01.12.2016
    9XY FORWARD CONT. CREDITORS 900000

    9XX FORWARD CONT. DEBTORS 900000
    (Closing the Forward Contract in the Memorandum
    Accounts)
    01.12.2016
    562 DERIVATIVE FIN. INSTR. FAIR 17150
    VALUE DIFFERENCES

    648 DERIVATIVE FIN. INSTR.
    PROFITS 17150
    (Entering the Gains made from Forward Contract)
    If the company bought the foreign currency forward contract for a purchase of 250.000€ with the forward
    exchange of 1€=3,70 ₺ on 01/06/2016:

    01.06.2016

    9XX FORWARD CONT. DEBTORS 925000

    9XY FORWARD CONT.
    CREDITORS 925000
    (Entering the Forward Contract in the Memorandum
    Accounts)
    250000€ x 3,60₺/€
    01.12.2016
    562 DERIVATIVE FIN. INSTR. FAIR 7850
    VALUE DIFFERENCES

    116 DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL
    RESOURCES 7850

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  8. Comparison of Methods For The Recognition of Derivative Financial Products Within The Scope of Turkish
    Financial Reporting Standards (TFRS)

    (Currency Change Valuation Record regarding the
    Forward Contract)
    250000€ x (3,70-3,6686)₺/€
    01.12.2016

    253 MACHINERY, EQUIP. AND INST. 917150
    116 DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL RESOURCES 7850

    102 BANKS 925000
    (Tangible Asset Purchase Record)
    250000€ x 3,6686₺/€
    01.12.2016
    9XY FORWARD CONT. CREDITORS 925000

    9XX FORWARD CONT.
    DEBTORS 925000
    (Closing the Forward Contract in the Memorandum
    Accounts)
    01.12.2016
    658 DERIVATIVE FIN. INSTR. LOSS 7850

    562 DERIVATIVE FIN. INSTR.
    FAIR VALUE DIFFERENCES 7850
    (Entering the Losses arising from Forward Contract)
    Following is the recommended accounting record by using free accounts if the company bought the
    foreign currency forward contract for a purchase of 250.000€ with the forward exchange of 1€=3, 60₺ on
    01/06/2016:
    01.06.2016
    8XX MACHINE ORDER 900000
    8XX.01. Machine Order Made
    With the Forward Contract

    336 OTHER MISCELLANEOUS
    PAYABLES 900000
    336.01.Forward Cont. Payabl.
    (Record of the Machine Order, price fixed through
    Forward Contract)
    01.12.2016
    253 MACHINERY, EQUIP. AND INST. 917150

    8XX MACHINE ORDER 900000
    8XX.01.Machine Order Made
    with the Forward Cont.
    648 DERIVATIVE FIN. INSTR. 17150

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  9. Burak TERİM

    PROFITS
    (Machine Purchase Record)
    01.12.2016

    336 OTHER MISCELLANEOUS PAYABLES 900000
    336.01. Forward Cont. Payables

    102 BANKS 900000
    (Payment Record)
    Following is the recommended accounting record by using free accounts if the company bought the
    foreign currency forward contract for a purchase of 250.000€ with the forward exchange of 1€=3,70₺ on
    01/06/2016:
    01.06.2016
    8XX MACHINE ORDER 925000
    8XX.01. Machine Order Made
    With the Forward Contract

    336 OTHER MISCELLANEOUS
    PAYABLES 925000
    336.01.Forward Cont. Payabl.
    (Record of the Machine Order, price fixed through
    Forward Contract)
    01.12.2016
    253 MACHINERY, EQUIP. AND INST. 917150
    658 DERIVATIVE FIN. INSTR. LOSS 7850
    8XX MACHINE ORDER 925000
    8XX.01.Machine Order Made
    with the Forward Cont.
    (Machine Purchase Record)
    01.12.2016
    336 OTHER MISCELLANEOUS PAYABLES 925000
    336.01. Forward Cont. Payables

    102 BANKS 925000
    Payment Record

    6. CONCLUSION
    In a globalized economic structure, business enterprises are increasing their use areas of derivatives day by
    day in order to gain competitive advantage and optimize their financial risks. Furthermore, various
    accounting methods have been developed in accordance with published standards in order for the enterprises
    to be featured on both recognition and financial reports related to derivatives within international accounting
    circles.
    Standards developed by national and international bodies are about the explanation of accounting
    essentials regarding the acquisition purposes and recognition of derivatives when assessment and

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  10. Comparison of Methods For The Recognition of Derivative Financial Products Within The Scope of Turkish
    Financial Reporting Standards (TFRS)

    income/expense are the case. Besides these features in using these products, ensuring traceability also for
    administrative accounting is essential.
    Where the use of derivatives for both ensuring transparency in presentation of financial tables and
    facilitating administrative follow-ups, recognition by the use of free accounts as well as recognition by the
    use of memorandum accounts which is frequently preferred in practice are also considered to be favorable.
    Thus, business top management will be able to access faster and more efficiently to data on both
    production planning and financial position within the decision-making process.

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