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This study could not have been completed without the help, encouragement and support from the people who play indispensable roles and have a great influence on the research. First of all, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Mr.Luc Dinh Quang, my beloved teacher – a sincere and enthusiastic supervisor for his careful reading, critical comments and useful guidance during my research. His contribution played an integral part in the completion of my study. Thank to his help and his enthusiasm, I have more inspiration to conquer challenges and complete this research on time. I wish to thank 100 Grade 10 students from class 10a4, 10a11 and 10a14 at Ngoc Tao high school, Hanoi for their cooperation and willing participation in completing my questionnaire. My great thank is also given to the teaching staff especially teachers of English at this high school for their help and efforts in taking part in my interview. Last but not least, I am truly grateful to my friends and my family for their continual encouragements during the time I carried out the research. Graduation paper ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This study could not have been completed without the help, encouragement and support from the people who play indispensable roles and have a great influence on the research. First of all, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Mr.Luc Dinh Quang, my beloved teacher – a sincere and enthusiastic supervisor for his careful reading, critical comments and useful guidance during my research. His contribution played an integral part in the completion of my study. Thank to his help and his enthusiasm, I have more inspiration to conquer challenges and complete this research on time. I wish to thank 100 Grade 10 students from class 10a4, 10a11 and 10a14 at Ngoc Tao high school, Hanoi for their cooperation and willing participation in completing my questionnaire. My great thank is also given to the teaching staff especially teachers of English at this high school for their help and efforts in taking part in my interview. Last but not least, I am truly grateful to my friends and my family for their continual encouragements during the time I carried out the research. Page 1 Graduation paper ABSTRACT It is not difficult for one to find out articles and videos talking about warm-up activity and its advantages. However, it is seemed that none of them fully cover warm- up’s advantages as well as find out clearly the relation between warm-up and motivation. This study was carried out to find out the ways to get students’ attention at the beginning of the class by means of exciting activities as well as to adapt these activities in teaching process. In other words, it means concentrating on the roles of warm-up activities as perceived by Grade 10 students, the kinds of warm-up activities which effectively motivate students. To fulfill the objectives, the combination of both qualitative and quantitative methodology was utilized. About 100 Grade 10 students were chosen to answer a number of questionnaires and 5 teachers are invited to take part in interviews. The collected data then were cautiously analyzed. The result of this research was, in summary, quite positive on finding out the roles of warm-up activities as perceived by Grade 10 students which are creating happy atmosphere, increasing the involvement of students, making the task more exciting, waking students up and releasing stress. The outstanding kinds of warm-up activities which effectively motivate students are also showed, including activities related to the topic, activities without physical movement but still require intelligence and activities that review the previous topic. The situation of using warm-up activities and the desire of students at Ngoc Tao high school about the way their teachers design warm-up activities are also reflected through this study. Though the limitations have been unavoidable, the study is expected to be beneficial to teachers, students and researchers of the related studies. Page 2 Graduation paper TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i ABSTRACT ii TABLE OF CONTENTS iii LIST OF CHARTS AND TABLES v LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS …………………………………………………… vi CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1 1.1. Rationale of the study………………………………………………………… 1 1.2. Aims of the study………………………………………………………… 3 1.3. Research questions…………………………………………………………… 3 1.4. Significance of the study………………………………………………………3 1.5. Scope of the study …………………………………………………………….4 1.6. Organization of the study …………….…………………………… 4 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 5 2.1. Key concepts………………………… 5 2.1.1. Warm-up activities 5 2.1.1.1. Definition of warm-up activities………………………………5 2.1.1.2. Some common types of warm-up activities………………… 6 2.1.1.3. The Place of Warm up in the English Lesson …………… 9 2.1.1.4. Benefits of using warm-up activities……………………… 9 2.1.1.5 Aspects to be considered in a warm-up activity………… 12 2.1.2. Motivation…………………………………………………………… 13 2.1.2.1 The definition of motivation………………………………….13 2.1.2.2 Types of motivation 14 2.1.2.3. The importance of motivation……………………………… 16 2.1.2.4 Features of motivated students 17 2.1.2.5 Ways to increase motivation of students in class 18 2.2. The relation between motivation & warm-up activities ……………………… 20 Page 3 Graduation paper 2.3. Related studies………………………………………………………………… 21 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 22 3.1. Participants ………………………………………………………………… 22 3.2. Data collection instrument ………………………………………………… 22 3.3. Data collection procedures……………………………………………… 24 3.4. Data analysis procedures ………………………………………….… 26 CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 27 4.1. An overview about the situation of using WAs at Ngoc Tao high school……….27 4.2. Students’ preference toward some types of WAs…………………………… 30 4.3. Advantages of WAs perceived by students………………………………… 32 4.4. Kinds of WAs that can motivate or encourage students to work in class……… 35 4.5. The situation of using WAs in class…………………………………………… 37 4.6. Students’ desires about the way teachers use warm-up activities……………….41 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 43 5.1. Summary of the findings …………………………………………………………… 43 5.2. Limitations of the study ………………………………………………………44 5.3. Suggestions for future study …………………………………………… 45 REFERENCES 46 APPENDICES 49 Appendix 1 49 Appendix 2 54 Appendix 3 55 Appendix 4 63 Appendix 5 68 Page 4 Graduation paper LIST OF CHARTS AND TABLES Charts/ Tables Page Chart 1: The frequency of using warm-up activities for Grade 10 students at Ngoc Tao high school 27 Chart 2: Types of warm-up activities students at Ngoc Tao high school have ever joined 29 Chart 3: Students’ preference toward some types of warmers 30 Table 1: Students’ feeling when taking part in warm-up activities 32 Table 2: Advantages of warm-up activities perceived by students 33 Chart 4: The ways warm-up activities motivate students 34 Table 3: Kinds of warm-up activities that can motivate or encourage students to work in class 35 Chart 5: The time spent on warm-up activities in class 10 at Ngoc Tao high school 37 Chart 6 : The comments of students at Ngoc Tao high school on the time the teacher spends on warm-up activities 37 Table 4: Aspects warm-up activities achieve 38 Chart 7: The comment of students on the effect of using warm-up in motivating 40 Page 5 Graduation paper them in class Chart 8: Students’ desires about the way teachers use warm-up activities 41 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS WA: Warm up activity WAs: Warm up activities Page 6 Graduation paper CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale of the study Recently, the use of WAs has been a topic commonly mentioned in methodologies which are suggested for English classes; since they are considered as an essential ingredient for an effective period in language learning classroom and play an indispensable part in leading to the success of a lesson. Nonetheless, they often receive less attention than they should. Teachers spend a lot of time preparing explanations to introduce and practice the target language, and seem do not prepare carefully for the first five – minute activity of each lesson. This can causes the boredom in classroom for it can not involve students and attract them to the next contents of the lesson. In the light of communicative language teaching where the primary function of language is interaction and communication, and the main aim is to be able to train students who are communicatively competent, the traditional teaching style no longer takes its dominant place in classroom. In other words, in communicative language classroom, students expect to be involved in more activities to develop fluency in language use. The traditional reading-writing teaching form is no longer appropriate with students. In stead, they need some practical activities which motivate and inspire Page 7 Graduation paper them as much as possible. Among all of those activities, WAs should be the first factor to care about at the beginning of each lesson. The core reason is that to be “the first activity of the lesson, the warm up sets the tone for the next ninety minutes” (Chris Cotter, The Importance of Warming Up Students). This means whether students are motivated to enjoy the rest of the lesson or not, to some extent, depends on the warmers. Thus, the teachers must be aware of designing and applying these activities to achieve at least the following aims: to introduce a theme, to relax students after a hard day’s work, to wake students up after a hard night, to wait for late arrivals, to provide a break in the lesson, to provide humor, to provide oral fluency practice and to finish the lesson on a light note. The information about this field can be found at http://www.developingteachers.com. From this point of view, using warm up activities to motivate students is essential. Understanding the importance of WAs and the fact that the use of WAs is not as effective as expectation, some researchers invest in studying this issue. A typical example is Rosalba V. with the research “The Role of Warming Up Activities in Adolescent Students’ Involvement during the English Class”. In this research, Rosalba indicated some benefits of using warm up activities and pointed out the ability to promote students’ involvement at the very beginning of the class by applying warm ups. Nevertheless, this research just focused on students Grade 7 and did not suggest the solutions to apply warm up activities in order to satisfy the demand and encourage the appetite of learning of students. This gap in the research of Rosalba; therefore, is an inspiration for other researchers to study and expand the issue. Turning back to the problem of using WAs in some high schools in Hanoi, a fact that can be recognized is that in the center of Hanoi, students have more opportunities to learn in a communicative English classroom with a variety of activities than in the suburb area. For instance, at Ngoc Tao high school, where researcher used to study for three years, although students in this suburb of Hanoi are approached to the new method of teaching and learning English, the use of WAs is Page 8 Graduation paper quite limited. Moreover, it seemed that both teachers and students have not fully understood about the roles as well as the rules of using warm up in certain classroom environment. Considering all the ideas above and with the hope to get a profound insight into the roles of WAs perceived by Grade 10 students and to suggest some solutions to apply effectively warm up activities in English lessons, researcher has decided to choose the topic “A study on the use of warm-up activities to motivate Grade 10 students in English lessons at Ngoc Tao high school” 1.2. Aims of the study The research is undertaken to find out the ways to get students’ attention at the beginning of the class by means of enjoyable and short activities as well as to adapt these activities successfully in teaching process. The specific objectives of the study are:  To point out the roles of WAs as perceived by Grade 10 students.  To identify the kinds of WAs which effectively motivate students The aim of the study is also specified in the research questions below 1.3 The research questions The research questions that the study addressed are:  What are the roles of WAs as perceived by Grade 10 students at Ngoc Tao High School?  Which types of WAs are motivating as perceived by Grade 10 students at Ngoc Tao High School?  In what ways are WAs used for Grade 10 students at Ngoc Tao High School? Page 9 Graduation paper 1.4. Significance of the research This study is conducted with the hope that its findings will be beneficial for teachers of English and for the teaching English process as well. The results of this study may help teachers aware of the indispensable importance and necessity of using WAs at the beginning of each lesson. Moreover, the results may enable teachers to determine which kinds of WAs should be used and how they are adapted to achieve the goal of each lesson. Lastly, this study would be a reliable source of information for researchers who wish to carry out studies on similar issues in the future. All the voices of students and teachers are expressed in this study to find the best way in warm up students in English lesson and inspiring students in learning process. 1.5. Scope of the study Due to limitation of time, knowledge and materials, the researcher only focuses on main roles of WA activities perceived by grade 10 students, some kinds of WA activities that students like most and the way warm up activities are used for Grade 10 students at Ngoc Tao high school. Moreover, the questionnaire was conducted by 100 Grade 10 students at Ngoc Tao high school and 5 teachers were interviewed. 1.6. Organization of the study There are five chapters in the study. Chapter 1 provides the rationale, the aims, the research questions, the significance and the scope of the study. Chapter 2 presents some main terminologies in the research. Page 10 […]… study “the use of WAs to motivate Grade 10 students in English lessons at Ngoc Tao high school”, it was conducted among 100 Grade 10 students at Ngoc Tao high school Details of the participants, the instrument, the procedures of data collection and data analysis are given below 3.1 Participants The research was conducted among 100 Grade 10 students at Ngoc Tao high school Moreover, to ensure the objectivity,… other words, the topics must be meaningful and familiar with students, make them real to urge students to study about them • Provision of choice: Providing students with numerous choices is an effective motivator in which it creates more options for students to choose Moreover, it gives students more opportunities to experience • A balance of challenge: the tasks must have a balance of the level of… (2 010) “Action research is a method used for improving practice It involves action, evaluation, and critical reflection and – based on the evidence gathered – changes in practice are then implemented.” Action research is also illustrated through the following diagram of Kemmis McTaggart (2000) Page 30 and Graduation paper The action research was carried out at two Grade 10 classes at Ngoc Tao high school… Firstly, the researcher makes a detailed plan, design some warm up activities connected to the topic of the lessons in the textbook “Tieng Anh 10  Secondly, the researcher puts it in practice, applies these activities in English lessons by using it to teach some Grade 10 classes and observes the process and consequences of the change  Thirdly, the researcher observes the class and then reflects on the… its frequency The result for this one is clearly demonstrated through the following figure: Chart 1: The frequency of using WAs for Grade 10 students at Ngoc Tao high school From the bar chart above, it can be seen that the majority of students at Ngoc Tao high school sometimes have warm-up in English lesson In addition, there is only 24% of students expressing that they often have warm-up part before… students at Ngoc Tao high school have ever joined At many school, whether WAs are always used or not, the students have just experienced certain activities That is the reason why the researcher listed names of some activities and asked students to point out the ones they have ever joined The data is shown in the following chart: Chart 2: Types of WAs students at Ngoc Tao high school have ever joined The… learning a language or studying some kinds of games or warm-up activities has been a commonly chosen topic of many researchers, but not many people put these concepts in their relation to study • In the world In December, 2008, the researcher Rosalba Velandia carried out his research at Porfirio Barba Jacob School, Bogota-Colombia, which is “The Role of Warming Up Activities in Adolescent Students’ Involvement… is also illustrated through the following diagram of Kemmis McTaggart (2000) Page 30 and Graduation paper The action research was carried out at two Grade 10 classes at Ngoc Tao high school – class 10a4 and 10a11 There are nearly 50 students in each classroom About three fifths of them are good, one fifth is average and the others are low level ones Basing on the features of an action research as well… can be used to warm-up However, it has not given a deep look at warm-up and its role in specific At the same college, another graduation paper called “Designing warm-up activities for the new Tieng Anh 10 (set 1)” by P.T.T Ha in 2005 pointed out some types of warm-up activities which are designed in regard to some criteria established in the teaching implications On the whole, chapter 2 covers the… Some lecturers are also asked to give comments on questions of the interviews for teachers and parents Stage 2: Page 31 Graduation paper In this stage, copies of the questionnaire were delivered to 100 chosen participants They were free to ask any questions and the researcher was always ready to answer all the questions The participants were given 25 minutes to do the questionnaire in class Five teachers . challenges and complete this research on time. I wish to thank 100 Grade 10 students from class 10a4, 10a11 and 10a14 at Ngoc Tao high school, Hanoi for their cooperation and willing participation. by Grade 10 students at Ngoc Tao High School?  Which types of WAs are motivating as perceived by Grade 10 students at Ngoc Tao High School?  In what ways are WAs used for Grade 10 students. frequency of using warm-up activities for Grade 10 students at Ngoc Tao high school 27 Chart 2: Types of warm-up activities students at Ngoc Tao high school have ever joined 29 Chart 3: Students’

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