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Khi muốn thay đổi một câu trần thuật trực tiếp sang 1 câu trần thuật gián tiếp, chúng ta dùng động từ ‘say/tell’ để giới thiệu.. Đồng thời cần áp dụng các quy tắc sau:.[r] (1)UNIT 11: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (KHOA HỌC VÀ CÔNG NGHỆ) A VOCABULARY New words Meaning Picture Example archaeology [,ɑ:ki’ɔlədʒi] (n) khảo cổ học Josh is interested in archaeology Josh có hứng thú với khảo cổ học discover [dis’kʌvə] (v) khám phá You will be fascinated to discover about the city’s history Bạn thấy thích thú khám phá lịch sử thành phố enormous [i’nɔ:məs] (adj) to lớn, khổng lồ He spent an enormous amount of time on that project Anh dành lượng lớn thời gian cho dự án explorer [iks’plɔ:rə] người thám hiểm Jim dreams of becoming an explorer in the future Jim mơ ước trở thành nhà thám hiểm tương lai field [fi:ld] (n) ngành, khía cạnh She is well-known in the field of music Cô tiếng lĩnh vực âm nhạc invent [in’vent] (v) phát minh, sáng chế The light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison (2)patent [‘peitnt] (n) bằng sang chế He obtained a patent on his new product last year Anh lấy sáng chế cho sản phẩm năm ngoái precise [pri’sais] (adj) rõ ràng xác Can you tell me the precise time of the meeting? Bạn nói cho tơi biết thời gian xác buổi họp không? role [rəul] (n) vai trò Jane plays an important role in her club Jane có vai trị quan trọng câu lạc cô science [‘saiəns] (n) khoa học John wants to become a science student John muốn trở thành sinh viên ngành khoa học steam engine [ ˈsti:m endʒɪn ] đầu máy nước Who invented the steam engine? Ai phát minh đầu máy xe lửa? technique [tek’ni:k] (n) kỹ thuật His technique has improved a lot Kĩ thuật anh tiến nhiều transform [træns’fɔ:m] (v) biến đổi My village has transformed into a modern city Làng biến đổi thành thành phố đại yield [ji:ld] (n,v) sản lượng This year we have a high crop yield Năm có sản lượng vụ mùa cao B GRAMMAR. I ƠN TẬP CÁC THÌ TƯƠNG LAI (FUTURE TESES) (3)Tương lai đơn (+) S + will + V(infinitve) + O (-) S + won’t+ V(infinitve) + O (?) Will + S + V(infinitve) + O ? tomorrow next week/month/year in the future in + thời gian tương lai Tương lai tiếp diễn (+) S + will + be + V-ing + O (-) S + won’t + be + V-ing + O (+) Will + S +be + V-ing + O ? At this time tomorrow/next week At 10 o’clock tomorrow Thời gian xác định thời điểm tương lai Bài 1: Viết lại cụm từ gạch chân câu dạng tương lai đơn (will + V) tương lai tiếp diễn (will be + V-ing) cho phù hợp. 1 Don’t call me at 10 o’clock I am going to fly to Spain I suppose we are going to stay at a hotel next summer Come to see me in the afternoon I work in the garden Do you think it is snowing at the weekend? 5 Is the coat O.K ?- Yes, I am taking it 6 This time on Sunday we are going to ski in France 7 I don’t know if I will stay here Perhaps I move to a big city one day Every student is using a computer in the future Bài 2: Chia động từ ngoặc tương lai đơn tương lai tiếp diễn cho phù hợp. 1 I can buy it for you I (shop) in the afternoon anyway Is Bill at school? – No, he isn’t I suppose he (come) I hope Simon (be) there 4 Did you remember to invite Mrs Oates? – Oh, no! I forgot But I (call) – her now (4)7 Be careful or the cars (knock) you down We (move) our house this time tomorrow 9 He (play) tennis at 7.30 He usually starts at o’clock Could you come before that? 10 Your suitcase is so big I (take) it for you Bài 3: Dựa vào gợi ý, dùng tương lai đơn tương lai tiếp diễn để viết câu hỏi đây. 1 I am not sure if I can offer this room ? (our guest /like/it) 2 Can I borrow your laptop tonight? ? (you/use/it/about o’clock) 3 We arrive in Aberdeen at o’clock ? (we/have/time/for lunch) 4 The show starts at Please, ? (you/drive me/there) 5 Your journey will be so long How while you are on the train? (you/spend/your time) 6 I’ve just missed the train How ? (I/ get/to school) I’d like to see your project If I come at 4.30, ? (you/work/on it) 8 If your teacher ask you, ? (you/translate/the text) What while I am cleaning the windows? (you/do) 10 if the coach is booked? (you/take/a taxi) (5)1 Định nghĩa. Định nghĩa Ví dụ – Câu trực tiếp (Direct Speech) xác lời Chúng ta thường dùng dấu “ ” để trích dẫn lời nói trực tiếp – Câu tường thuật (hay gọi câu gián tiếp) câu thuật lại lời nói trực tiếp người khác phát biểu – They said, “We will visit her” (Direct Speech) →They said (that) they would visit her (Reported Speech/ Indirect Speech) 2 Câu trần thuật gián tiếp (Reported Statement) Khi muốn thay đổi câu trần thuật trực tiếp sang câu trần thuật gián tiếp, dùng động từ ‘say/tell’ để giới thiệu Đồng thời cần áp dụng quy tắc sau: a Thay đổi động từ. * Nếu động từ giới thiệu (say/tell) động từ câu gián tiếp giữ nguyên câu trực tiếp Ví dụ: “ I always drink coffee in the morning”, she says → She says that she always drinks coffee in the morning * Nếu động từ giới thiệu khứ (said/told) động từ câu gián tiếp cần thay đổi sau: Thì lời nói trực tiếp Thì lời nói gián tiếp Hiện đơn “I like sciences” → Quá khứ đơn. He said (that) he liked sciences Hiện tiếp diễn “I am staying for a few days” →Quá khứ tiếp diễn She said (that) she was staying for a few days Hiện hoàn thành “Nick has left” → Quá khứ hoàn thành She said (that) Nick had left Quá khứ đơn “Nick left this morning” → Quá khứ hoàn thành She told me (that) Nick had left that morning Quá khứ tiếp diễn “I was doing my homework” → Quá khứ tiếp diễn/ Quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn She said (that) she was doing her homework /She had been doing her homework Will “Man will travel to Mars” →Would (6)Can “We can swim” → Could They told us (that) they could swim May “We may live on the moon” →Might He said (that) they might live on the moon b Đổi đại từ nhân xưng, tính từ đại từ sở hữu. Trong lời nói trực tiếp Trong lời nói gián tiếp I → he/she we → they you → I/he/she my → his/her our → their your → my/his/her mine → his/hers ours → theirs c Thay đổi trạng từ thời gian nơi chốn. Trạng từ câu trực tiếp Trạng từ câu gián tiếp now →then today →that day here →there this week →that week tomorrow →the following day/the next day yesterday →the day before/the previous day last month →the month before/the previous month tonight →that night ago →before next week →the following week/the week after these →those Ví dụ: He said to me, “I and you will go with her father next week” He told me (that) he and I would go with her father the following week BÀI TẬP VẬN DỤNG CƠ BẢN Bài 4: Chọn từ thích hợp hộp điền vào chỗ trống. Ther e the following day two hours before my the previous week then the day before that evening that night that her 1 “I like this pair of shoes” →She said (that) she liked pair of shoes “Our plane lands tonight”→ They said their plane landed (7)5 “I am going to the cinema this evening”→ Sara told me that she was going to the cinema 6 “Paul took his driving licence last week”→ Paul told me he had taken his driving licence 7 “This girl is my sister”→ She said to me that that girl was sister “I like the way they cook here”→ Tina said that she liked the way they cooked 9 “She won’t arrive tomorrow”→ Sandra said that she wouldn’t arrive 10 “Henry phoned Lara two hours ago”→ Henry told me that Lara had phoned 11 “I am watching TV now”→ Mum said that she was watching TV Bài 5: Điền vào chỗ trống từ phù hợp “said” “told” 1 He _ me a nice story 2 Sarah _ to her mum that she was sick We _ that we were going to leave that night Paul _ his books were missing 5 She _ that she would take the dog out that night Brian _ that he had moved to Canada the week before Dan _ Lara to stop spending so much money 8 Our teacher _ us that Christopher Columbus had discovered had discovered America 9 He _ they would arrive the following day 10 They _her to come early 11 Fiona _ to Kate that she had bought a nice skirt the day before 12 I was sure that he _ the truth (8)‘I am asking your help’ 1 Mary says to Peter Paul says to Jenny I say to you 4 You say to me 5 Jane says to the boys ‘We bought you some books yesterday’ 6 They say to us 7 Sarah says to the children Mary says to Peter 9 You say to me 10 I say to you Bài 7: Các câu trực tiếp chuyển thành câu gián tiếp Hãy đọc, gạch chân sửa lỗi sai có câu. 1 “I am not going to tolerate this anymore ”, said Sarah Sarah said she was not going to tolerate this anymore “You have always been my friend”, said Joe Joe said I was always his friend 3 “We never eat meat”, claimed Bill Bill claimed that they had never eaten meat (9)Linda said she wished she had been twenty years younger “Answer the phone!”he told me He told me I answered the phone “Where is Alex?” she asked me She asked me where was Alex Bài 8: Hoàn thành câu gián tiếp đây. 1 Mr Miller said, ‘I can’t come to the meeting on Sunday’ Mr Miller said (that) Mary said, ‘I’m feeling ill’ Mary said (that) Your brother said, ‘I like chocolate’ Your brother said (that) My brother said, ‘I’m going to learn to cook’ My brother said (that) He said, ‘I’ll learn English online tomorrow’ He said (that) My cousin said, ‘I’m not enjoying my job very much recently’ My cousin said (that) My parents said, ‘We’ll phone you when we get back’ My parents said (that) Susan said, ‘You don’t know what Bob is doing’ Susan said (that) She said, ‘I’ll tell dad I saw you’ (10)He said (that) 11 He said, ‘I have passed the physical test’ He said (that) 12 Safia said, ‘I went to Italy last year’ Safia said (that) 13 Kevin said, ‘I had a great weekend’ Kevin said (that) 14 Mehrzad said, “I’m going to start my own photography business next month.” Mehrzad said (that) _ 15 Alex said, “I finished university in June” Alex said (that) _ 16 Safia said, “I have studied photography” Safia said (that) 17 Maria said, “I will bring you a scarf from India” Maria said (that) BÀI TẬP TỔNG HỢP NÂNG CAO Bài 9: Chia động từ ngoặc tương lai đơn tương lai tiếp diễn để hoàn thành câu sau. 1 I’m that next year this city (look) _ much better 2 They (have to) _ change their diet if they want to keep fit I (not do) _that if he doesn’t apologize to me (11)6 I (not do) _anything till Monday 7 You can visit me tomorrow I (not do) _ anything important Can I borrow your car? Sure, I (not use) _ it until Friday At 11 p.m I (sleep) _ 10 You should recognize her easily She (wear) _ a red skirt 11 I wish I could visit you, but I (manage) _ a very important project 12 She (not come) _ with us, I’m sure 13 I (help) _ you as soon as I finish this project 14 He (not be able) _ to carry such a heavy bag 15 I think he (find) _ this work more interesting when he grows up 16 This time next month I (enjoy) _ the holidays 17 Hold on, I (give) _ you a gift 18 He (give) _ me 20$ a day during my stay 19 I suppose the weather (be) _ good 20 We (leave) _ this house as soon as possible Bài 10: Khoanh tròn vào phương án đúng. 1 Customer in restaurant: Waiter, this place is dirty Waiter: I’m sorry, sir, I _ (bring) you another A will bring B will be bringing C A &B 2 It’s beginning to get dark; the street lights (go) on in a few minutes A will go B will be going C A & B 3 Let’s wait here; the swing bridge (open) in a minute to let that ship through A will open B will be opening C A & B 4 Guest: May I use your phone to ring for a taxi? (12)A.will drive B will be driving C A & B 5 A: Before you leave the office you _ (hand) the keys of the safe to Mr Pitt Do you understand? B: Yes, sir A will hand B will be handing C A & B Are you nearly ready? Our guests (arrive) any minute A will arrive B will be arriving C A & B 7 Loudspeaker announcement: The ship (leave) in a few minutes and all persons not travelling are asked to go ashore A will leave B will be leaving C A & B 8 You ought to try to get a ticket for the Spectators’ Gallery next week; they _ (debate) international fishing rights A will debate B will be debating C A & B A: You’ve left the light o B: Oh, so I have I _ (go) and turn it off A will go B will be going C A & B 10 I’ve been appointed assistant at the local library The you _ (work) under my sister She is head librarian there A will work B will be working C A& B Bài 11: Đọc đoạn văn trả lời câu hỏi đây. Ultralight Airplanes An ultralight airplane is very different from a conventional airplane It looks like a lawn chair with wings, weighs no more than 254 pounds, flies up to 60 miles an hour, and carries about gallons of fuel Most ultralights are sold as kits and take about 40 hours to assemble Flying an ultralight is so easy that a pilot with no experience can fly one Accidents are rarely fatal or even serious because the ultralight lands so slowly and gently and carries so little fuel Some models now have parachutes attached, while others have parachute packs which pilots can wear 1 According to the passage, pilots _ A prefer to fly with ultralights rather than with regular aircraft (13)C don’t think that their ultralight airplanes are simple to use D are reluctant to put their ultralights together E don’t need a special training to fly an ultralight airplane 2 We learn from the passage that an ultralight airplane _ A provides the only opportunity to fly affordably B doesn’t fly very well it it weighs less than 254 pounds C is inexpensive but difficult to fly D can be put together in a short time E is only permitted to be used for private recreational flying It is pointed out in the reading that _ A there is more risk involved in flying ultralight aeroplanes than in flying general aviation aircraft B ultralight airplanes can remain airborne for more than an hour C the risk of injury to a passenger in an ultralight airplane is very low
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