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ENGLISH EXERCISES THE PASSIVE VOICE I. DEFINITION (Định nghĩa) 1. Active sentences (Câu chủ động) : Câu chủ động là câu trong đó chủ ngữ là người hay vật thực hiện hành động. Ex : They built the house in this village in 1486. 2. Passive sentences (Câu bị động) : Câu bị động là câu trong đó chủ ngữ là người hay vật nhận hoặc chịu tác động của hành động. Ex : The house was built in this village in 1486. II. PASSIVE TRANSFORMATION (Cách đổi sang câu bị động) Muốn chuyển một câu từ thể chủ động sang thể bị động, ta thực hiện những bước sau Active : S V A O Passive : S V P by + Object 1. Lấy tân ngữ của câu chủ động (active) làm chủ ngữ của câu bị động (passive). 2. Đổi động từ chủ động (V A ) thành động từ bị động (V P ) V P = be + past participle (p.p) TENSES ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE Present Simple S +V (s / es) People speak English here. S + am / is / are + p.p English is spoken here. Present Continuous S + am / is / are + V-ing They are painting the house. S + am / is / are + being + p.p The house is being painted. Present Perfect S + have / has + p.p He hasn’t worn jackets for ages S + have / has + been + p.p Jackets haven’t been worn for ages Past Simple S + V 2 / V ed My mother wrote this letter. S + was / were + p.p This letter was written by my mother. Past Continuous S + was / were + V-ing She was doing the homework at that time yesterday. S + was / were + being + p.p Her homework was being done at that time yesterday. Past Perfect S + had + p.p They had destroyed all the documents when they arrived. S + had been + p.p All the documents had been destroyed when they arrived. Future Simple S + will / shall + V (b.f) I will tell you when the time comes. S + will / shall + be + p.p You will be told when the time comes. Future Continuous S + will / shall + be + V-ing We will be holding tasks at this time next year. S + will / shall + be + being + p.p Talks will be being held at this time next year. Future Perfect S + will / shall + have + p.p You will have finished this report before Tuesday. S + will / shall + have been + p.p This report will have been finished by Tuesday. 3. Chủ ngữ của câu chủ động thành tân ngữ của câu bị động và đứng trước nó là giới từ by . Ex : The President presented the medals. The medals was presented by the President. • Chủ ngữ I, you, we, they, he, she , it, one, someone, people, someone, somebody, nobody, no one thường được bỏ đi trong cây bị động. Ex : Somebody left this purse in a classroom This purse was left in a classroom. • Nếu trong câu chủ động có chủ ngữ là nobody hay no one thì động từ trong câu bị động chia ở dạng phủ định Ex : Nobody saw him leaving the room. He wasn’t seen leaving the room. Vị trí của các trạng từ trong câu bị động : – Trạng từ chỉ cách thức (Adverb of manner) thường đứng giữa be và past participle. Các trạng từ khác thường đứng sau trợ động từ đầu tiên. Ex : This problem has been carefully studied by the scientists. She had never been promoted if she wouldn’t have changed her job. – Trạng từ hoặc cụm từ chỉ thời gian đứng sau by + object. Ex : The report was typed by the secretary this morning. – Trạng từ hoặc cụm từ chỉ nơi chốn đứng trước by + object. Ex : He was found in the forest by the police. 1 Compiled by : DO HOANG PHUC ENGLISH EXERCISES THE PASSIVE VOICE III. SPECIAL CASES : (Các trường hợp đặc biệt) 1. Questions : (Câu hỏi) E.g. : Should we help Jane with the sewing ? Should Jane be helped with the sewing ? What time can the boy hand in their papers ? What time can the boys’ papers be handed in ? Who taught you to speak English ? Who were you taught to speak English. By whom were you taught to speak English ? 2. Verb with two objects : (Động từ với hai tân ngữ) – Khi động từ chủ động có 2 tân ngữ chỉ người (indirect object – I.O) và chỉ vật (direct object – D.O) thì cả 2 tân ngữ đó đều có thể làm chủ ngữ trong câu bị động. (a) V + indirect object (I.O) + direct object (D.O) E.g. : He gave (I.O) the police (D.O) information. (b) V + direct object (D.O) + preposition + indirect object (I.O) E.g. : He gave the (D.O) information to (I.O) the police. – Lúc này, dạng bị động được thành lập bằng 2 cách • Tân ngữ gián tiếp trở thành chủ ngữ của câu bị động. E.g. : The police were given information. • Tân ngữ trực tiếp trở thành chủ từ của câu bị động. E.g. : The information were given to the police. – Thông thường tân ngữ gián tiếp thường được chọn làm chủ từ của câu bị động hơn là tân ngữ trực tiếp. E.g. : The council have awarded Andrew the grand prize for his essay. Andrew has been awarded the grand prize for his essay by the council. (more common) The grand prize has been awarded to Andrew for his essay by the council. (less common) – Một số động từ thường dùng với dạng này : award, give, sell, send, show, lend, pay, promise, write, teach,… 3. Verb of perception : (Động từ chỉ giác quan) – Các động từ chỉ giác quan thường được dùng trong cấu trúc này là : feel, see, watch, hear,… E.g. : We saw them go out of the house. They were seen to go out of the house. I heard him run upstairs. He was heard to run upstairs. – Dạng bị động này còn được dùng với động từ help và make (đi với bare-infinitive) E.g. : They made him tell the truth. He was told to tell the truth. You should help the old carry their heavy bags. The old should be helped to carry the heavy bags. – Let được dùng không có TO. Tuy nhiên let ít được dùng ở dạng bị động, allow được dùng ở dạng bị động để thay thế E.g. : They let is go. We were let go (We were allowed to go) 4. To-infinitive & infinitive passive : (Động từ nguyên mẫu có TO và không TO) – Các động từ chỉ mệnh lệnh, yêu cầu, sự cho phép, lời khuyên, lời mời,… được dùng theo cấu trúc sau : ask, tell, request, advice, order, allow, invite E.g. : He asked me to send a stamp. I was asked to send a stamp. They advised us to go early. We were advised to go early. 5. Reporting verb with THAT clause : (Động từ tường thuật với mệnh dề THAT) – Mệnh đề that được dùng làm tân ngữ cho các động từ : allege, announce, hope, believe, claim, consider, expect, know, report, rumor, say, think,… – Chỉ dùng perfect infinitive trong các trường hợp sau MAIN CLAUSE THAT CLAUSE Present Simple Past Simple Present Simple Present Perfect Past Simple Past Perfect E.g. : We know that he is an honest man. They say that the castle was built in the 19 th century. It is known that he is an honest man. It is said that the castle was built in the 19 th century. He is known to be an honest man. The castle is said to have been built in the 19 th century. 6. Imperative form : (Mệnh lệnh cách) E.g. : Turn off all the lights before leaving the workshop. Let the lights be turned off before you leave the workshop. All the lights must be turned off before you leave the workshop. Note : Trong trường hợp câu mệnh lệnh có 2 vế thì cần phải xem xét kĩ chủ ngữ của từng vế, khi đối sang câu bị động phải đổi kèm với chủ từ vế sau để tránh lỗi về phân từ (dangling participial phrases) 2 Compiled by : DO HOANG PHUC Acve : Subject + verb + bare in#nive / V-ing Passive : Subject + be + V 3 / V ed + to – in#nive / V-ing S + be + V 3 / V ed + to-in#nive Acve : S 1 + V 1 + (that) S 2 + V 2 Passive : * It + be + (that) V 3 / V ed + S2 + V2 * S2 + be + V 3 / V ed + to + bare-in#nive have + V 3 / V ed ENGLISH EXERCISES THE PASSIVE VOICE 7. Causative form : (Thể sai khiến) – Thể sai khiến được dùng để nói rằng chúng ta nhờ hoặc sắp xếp cho ai làm một việc gì đó cho chúng ta. E.g. : I will get a mechanic to repair my car. I will get my car repaired by a mechanic. The manager had his secretary type the document. The manager had his document typed by the secretary. Note : Người ta thường sử dụng cấu trúc bị động của thể nhờ vả hơn là thể chủ động. – Ngoài ra, cấu trúc have / get sth done còn được dùng để nói về những điều không tốt đẹp xảy ra cho người hay vật nào đó. E.g. : The shops had its beautiful windows broken in a strong storm. Mr. Mai has just had her wallet stolen on the bus. EXERCISES A. CAUSATIVE FORM I. Rewrite these sentences, using Causative Active Form : 1. I asked Jack to polish my shoes. 2. Jack will ask the Mason to build his house. 3. They are going to tell us to play football. 4. She has told the maid to wash her clothes. 5. Tom has told the dentist to pull his decaying tooth. 6. She told the police to catch the thief. 7. We shall ask John to give you this book. 8. He had a mechanic repair his car engine. 9. Mary often asks the postman to mail her letter. 10. I will ask the painter to paint my house soon. 11. Mr. Green has told the electrician to repair his electric fan. 12. Alice is going to tell the manicurist to manicure her nails next Sunday. 13. The actress will ask the photographer to take some photos. 14. Mr. Pikes asked his students to cut their hair every months. 15. We must tell the painter to paint our room soon. II. Rewrite these sentences, using Causative Passive Form : 1. The mother has had her daughter make a dress. 2. Did you have anyone paint the chair ? 3. The boss has had the servant wash his car. 4. We have a carpenter make a desk. 5. Mrs. Green had had May feed the cat. 6. Stepmother had Cinderella separate the rice from the husk. 7. Please have someone carry my luggage to the airport. 8. Mr. Kim is going to have a tailor make a new shirt. 9. She is going to have the shoe-repairman mend her shoes. 10. Mrs. Smith is going to have an eye-specialist examine her eyes. 3 Compiled by : DO HOANG PHUC Acve : Subject + have sb do sth / get sb to do sth Passive : Subject + have / get + sth done by sb ENGLISH EXERCISES THE PASSIVE VOICE III. Use the correct verb form : 1. He has his shoes ………………… every day. (shine) 2. He gets his hair ………………… once a month. (cut) 3. We shall have those books ……………………… to you. (bring) 4. Maria had her landlord …………………… the broken windows before winter. (fix) 5. I’ll get a specialist ……………………… my health. (check up) 6. They are going to have their wedding card ………………… there. (print) 7. She got the post office ……………………… a telephone in his flat. (install) 8. Before we leave, let’s have Sally ……………… a map so we wouldn’t get lost. (draw) 9. She can’t always get her mother …………………… aloud to her. (read) 10. She can make any dogs …………………… her. (obey) 11. I called the company to have my telephone …………………… (change) 12. They are going to have a new school ……………………. (build) 13. She had a street artist …………………… her portrait. (paint) 14. She got the dentist …………………… her decaying tooth. (pull out) 15. To please my son, I had his old bicycle …………………… (repair) 16. Minh is getting his document ……………………… (type) B. THE PASSIVE VOICE I. Use the correct passive form of these verbs : 1. An island ………………………. by water. (cover) 2. I ……………………… to the party last night but I didn’t come. (invite) 3. Many accidents …………………… by reckless driving. (cause) 4. A new dormitory …………………… in the university campus now. (build) 5. Thank goodness ! My jewelry …………………… in the robbery last night. (steal / not) 6. If I didn’t do my job properly, I …………………………. (sack) 7. The electric light bulb ……………………… by Thomas Edison. (invent) 8. Mickey Mouse cartoons …………………………… in sixty languages. (translate) 9. If it is foggy, that sport event …………………………… (cancel) 10. The examinees …………………… the result of the examination next week. (tell) 11. This machine ……………………… for quite a long time. (not use) 12. The clever dog saved Lan and her family from …………………… in the typhoon. (catch) 13. I am looking forward to ……………………… fairly. (treat) 14. Nylon ……………………………… by an American chemist, Julian Hill in the 1930s. (invent) 15. How old is this tower ? It …………………………… to be over 600 years ago. (believe) 16. Teacher’s day …………………………………… largely since 1982. (celebrate) 17. We are having our house …………………………. at the moment. (paint) 18. Some trees ……………………………… on the sidewalk at the moment. (plant) 19. My car has disappeared. It ……………………………… by my brother. (take) 20. So as not ………………………………… by paparazzi, Angelina Jolie wore a veil. (recognize) II. Rewrite these sentences : 1. They say that she is the best singer in this town. She 2. They believe he will be the winner. It 3. People think that Tom stole food in the supermarket 3 days ago. Tom 4. Someone reported that the situation was under control. The situation 5. It is said that she works 16 hours a day. She 6. Someone thinks that the company is planning a new advertising campaign. The company 7. Everyone expects that the soap opera will end next year. It 4 Compiled by : DO HOANG PHUC ENGLISH EXERCISES THE PASSIVE VOICE 8. It is alleged that the man drove through the town at 90 miles an hour. The man 9. Someone believed that the President had suffered a heart attack. The president 10. They think that the prisoners escaped by climbing over the wall. The prisoners 11. It is reported that the buildings have been badly damaged by fire. The buildings 12. It is reported that many people are homeless after the floods. Many people 13. We all expected that Marta will pass the exam. It 14. We knew that you are in town on the night of the crime. You 15. People believe that he was killed by terrorists. He III. Change these sentences to the passive voice : 1. Our neighbor ought to paint the garage. 2. I have to return these books to the library. 3. Someone will pay you in ten days. 4. They chose him as the best actor of the year. 5. The cat has broken many bowls and dishes. 6. Clement Clarke Moore wrote the poem “A Visit form Saint Nicholas” in 1823. 7. Someone has already paid the electrician for his work. 7. The teacher always advises us to study harder on the second term. 8. People celebrate Tet round the last of January and the beginning of February. 9. They taught him French and gave him a dictionary. 10. Nguyen Hue School will hold an English-speaking Contest next month. 11. A man requested the stranger to leave the meeting. 12. They have eaten all the dinner since they finished the conversation. 20. Why didn’t they mend the roof before it fell in? 21. People said that the policeman soon died of cancer. 22. People think that we are using too much electricity. 23. Every year, Viet Nam exports millions of tons of rice. 5 Compiled by : DO HOANG PHUC ENGLISH EXERCISES THE PASSIVE VOICE 24. Vietnamese people celebrate their Lunar New Year Festival around January and February. 25. Our teacher always advises us to study harder on the second term. 26. The Library of Congress in the USA employs over 5000 employees. 27. My mother is making “Special Chinese Fried Rice” in the kitchen now. 28. Mr. Tam is painting his pictures with his patience. 29. They are planning to see a new film called “Ghost of Georgia”. 30. They are broadcasting the World Cup soccer games all over the world. 31. Mary is cutting the cupcake with a sharp knife. 32. Bad weather has delayed flight 202 from Miami. 33. They have celebrated the Teacher’s Day largely since 1982. 34. Science and Technology have completely changed human’s life. 35. People have built this building of bricks, stones and cement. 36. Nga has typed the report about polluted environment for 2 hours. 37. Brothers Lazlo and George Biro invented the ballpoint pen. 38. The boy broke the window and took away some money. 39. Someone cut down the tree in the garden yesterday. 40. The artist painted a huge pictures to raise fund for the poor children. 41. Mai wrote some articles about the damage of 11 th storm. 42. Someone was making coffee while I walked into the kitchen. 43. My father was fixing the electrical sockets at this time yesterday. 44. SJC Company was holding the meeting while it began to rain. 45. Mrs. Green was mending the ladder at ten yesterday. 46. The chief engineer was instructing all the workers of the plant. 47. Mr. Han is going to visit Hanoi on his work next week. 48. This company will organize an art exhibition next month. 6 Compiled by : DO HOANG PHUC ENGLISH EXERCISES THE PASSIVE VOICE 49. Nguyen Hue School will hold the English-speaking contest on next Friday. 50. Tom will return those books back to the library tomorrow. 51. The postman will deliver newspaper to him next week. 52. They can’t make tea in cold water. They have to make tea in hold water. 53. A sudden increase in water pressure may break the dam. 54. You must clean the floor before you paint it. 55. The girl has to decide to study law or pharmacy. 56. People can’t learn a foreign language in this week. 57. They make artificial flower of silk. 58. Nick will bring the pizzas to our house. 59. You can’t make tea in cold water. 60. They are digging some holes in the garden. 61. Did you receive your visa yesterday. 62. Where will the company send you next year. 63. He has spelt the word wrongly. 64. She was doing the homework at 4 yesterday. 65. They were preparing the meals when I arrived home. 66. The zookeeper feeds the animals at the zoo every day. 67. Should they help Timothy with cooking dinner ? 68. The managers have copied the file since you left the company. 69. They are going to steal your money if you are not careful. 70. The thief broke the window and took away some pictures. 71. For centuries, poets, writers and musicians have mentioned ao dai in poems, novels and songs. 72. They are going to plant some flowers and plants in our school yard next week. 73. Students in secondary school shouldn’t drive motorbikes at school. 74. They had opened a new museum in this land before we came to live in Vietnam in 1999. 7 Compiled by : DO HOANG PHUC ENGLISH EXERCISES THE PASSIVE VOICE 75. People said that Michael Jackson died of using too much cocaine. 76. Their boos made them work very hard until midnight. 77. This is the first time they have written to us about this. 78. How many lessons are you going to learn next month? 79. Someone had invented electric lights before I was born. 80. People know that Japan produces a wide range of cars. 81. Before they took exams they had revised their lessons. 82. When he came home his father was reading a newspaper. 83. My father will take me to Ho Chi Minh City next week. 84. When I was 18 years old, my parents allowed me to go out in the evening. 85. You were wearing your new hat when I met you yesterday. 86. He is preparing everything for the presidential election. 87. Last Friday, when I came to Jane’s house, she had finished all exercises. 88. Countries are finding a way to solve the problem. 89. He put the letter in the drawer, and then he locked it up. 90. By the end of this year, we will have learnt 2,000 English words. 91. Don’t ask for another book until you finish this one. 92. Her father was planting different kinds of flowers in the garden. 93. The Prime Minister is making a speech at the moment. 94. How many days did she spend finishing the work? 95. The doctor pulled out one of my teeth yesterday morning. 96. His wife usually brings him sandwiches at lunch time. 97. The light went out while I was making a cup of tea. 98. The students of chemistry made many experiments last week. 99. For the past years, I have done all my washing by hand. 8 Compiled by : DO HOANG PHUC ENGLISH EXERCISES THE PASSIVE VOICE 100. A pair of robins has built a nest in the porch since last week. 9 Compiled by : DO HOANG PHUC . (Câu chủ động) : Câu chủ động là câu trong đó chủ ngữ là người hay vật thực hiện hành động. Ex : They built the house in this village in 1486. 2. Passive sentences (Câu bị động) : Câu bị động. chuyển một câu từ thể chủ động sang thể bị động, ta thực hiện những bước sau Active : S V A O Passive : S V P by + Object 1. Lấy tân ngữ của câu chủ động (active) làm chủ ngữ của câu bị động (passive). 2 trong cây bị động. Ex : Somebody left this purse in a classroom This purse was left in a classroom. • Nếu trong câu chủ động có chủ ngữ là nobody hay no one thì động từ trong câu bị động chia
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